Traditional Vs Modern Era in Project

1. Traditional Era: The original project management is often associated with the early missile and space program of the 1960s. But clearly its origin go back much earlier. Techniques of project management probably must appeared in major construction works or antiquity such as Egyptian Pyramid, Great Wall of China, Taj Mahal of India, Paroma Cannel. Later these techniques were included and modified for usage on other forms of construction projects such as ship building. However traditional era of management extended up to 1930s.

2. Modern Era: Modern era of project management emerged at the down of second world war i.e. late 1930s. No one can claim the credit of inventing project management. But major share for the development of techniques and practices of project management belongs to military. The Manhattan Project of USA is assumed as the first project of the world according to modern project management. It developed atomic bomb.

1940s: The project model for managing development in modern sense appeared with the centralized planning model of the Soviet Union in 1930s. Project management emerged before the second world war in 1930s in chemical industries in USA. It was confined to the analysis methods and performance during 1940s

1950s: Project Management as a new management approach emerged during the 1950s. The development of Management Science approach to management facilitated its development.

Project management approach drew heavily on the work at management science (operations research) which focuses on mathematical treatment of complex situations for decision making. At that time, it also focused on process, construction, heavy engineering and defense industries.

1960s: The Russian success in sending "Sputnik" in the space spurred the growth of project management. The USA and the Western countries started using this approach widely to develop and execute complex aerospace, weapons, constructions and computer projects. The first manned space flight, the development of Inter- Continental Ballistic Missile (ICBM), and mainframe computers were the outcome of this approach. IBM adopted project management concept in 1961. So did many other companies. This approach became a necessity to adopt management to changing environment.

1970s: The 1970s experienced extended application of project management in a variety of government, industrial, commercial, health and educational projects. Development of many new products and processes were the outcome of project management. Research, development, training, political campaigns and software development task were increasingly subjected to project management concept.

1980s: During 1980s, global organizations became pronounced in the world economy. They were thinking globally but planning and executing projects locally based on project management approach.

Technology is changing fast. Technology management occupied a central place for the application of project management concept. Similarly, emerging areas of management such as time management, stress management, conflict management and human resource management became the subjects for the application of project management concept. Organizations that have complex tasks and operate in dynamic environment were compelled to use this concept.

2000 and Beyond: In twenty first century, the project management concept is likely to grow to achieve results. Its scope will be expanded by the infusion of specialists in particular areas, such as risk management, human resource management, procurement management. Such specialists will advise and assist the project manager in achieving the project objectives efficiently and effectively. The new century will be the upcoming age of project management.

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