Measurement and Factors Affecting Job Satisfaction

Measurement of Job Satisfaction 

As workers grow older, they tend to be slightly more satisfied with their jobs, apparently they have lower their expectations to more realistic levels and adjust themselves better to their work situations. People with high level occupations tend to be more satisfied with their jobs. As we might expect they are usually better paid, have better working conditions, and hold jobs that make fuller use of their abilities. Finally, there is some evidence to suggest that levels of job satisfaction are higher in smaller organizational units (such as a branch plant). This is because larger organizations tend to whelm people, disrupt supportive progresses, and limit the amount of personal closeness, friendship and small group team work that are important to the satisfaction of many people. 

Related Topic: 

Following three basic techniques that are used for job satisfaction studies. 

1. Projective Survey 

It is one of the survey techniques for interpreting job satisfaction. These devices are personality probes developed by psychiatrists and psychologists for studying metal health. The projective technique presents an abstraction that is incomplete and meaningless. The employees project that abstraction into completeness by describing what it means for them. This technique projects new and creative thinking that employees and management may draw results out of such projections. 

2. Objective Survey 

In objective survey, a questionnaire is prepared with questions and their multiple choice answers. The respondents read all answers of each questions and mark the answer which is nearest to their feelings. The answers may be either marked tick on "True" and "False" or written numerical value of the answer given in the space provided. The multiple choice answers are suggested by the management or surveyors. 

The main advantage of this type of survey is that they are easy to administer and to analyze statistically. Computers may be used to analyze the data. The chief defect of this type of survey is that the answers are written by the management, employees are to select and mark only one out of the several answers given which is nearest to their feelings. It is not always a true expression of their feelings. 

3. Descriptive Survey 

Just contrary to objective survey, employees are given the opportunity to express their opinions in details about the questions set by the management in descriptive surveys. The questions may pertain to their job or the organization such as "What do you think about pension schemes of the company?" the questions may be direct or indirect. Direct questions focus attention of the employee on a specific part of their job and the surveyor asks questions about that part. Indirect questions give employees a full opportunity to express their feelings about their job such as "What do you think about your job?" 

The descriptive survey may be written or oral applying interview techniques. Sometimes it may be a combination of the two techniques – written followed by interview and more questions may be asked during interview explaining their view point explicitly. The main advantage of this type of survey is that management comes across the true feelings of the employees regarding their jobs in a descriptive manner. 

Effects of Job Satisfaction on Employee's Performance 

Job satisfaction significantly contributes to employee performance especially in productivity and morale. Therefore, an industrial organization can be effectively benefited if it cares to develop general individuals, attitude in its employees that individuals, attitude in its employees that can effectively contribute to job satisfaction. Mostly, there is positive relationship between increase in job satisfaction and increase in employee's performance. But relationship between them is the sequence of relationship which is affected by economical, sociological, psychological and some other factors.
From the above figure, the sequence of relationship is that better performance typically leads to higher economic, sociological and psychological rewards. If these rewards are seen as fair and equitable, the improved satisfaction develops because employees feel that they are receiving rewards in proportion to higher performance. On the other hand, if rewards are seen as inadequate for one's level of performance, dissatisfaction tends to rise. In either case, one's level of satisfaction leads to either greater or lesser commitment, which then affects efforts and eventually performance again.

Factor Affecting Job Satisfaction

Job satisfaction is a set of favorable or unfavorable feelings which the employees view their work. Job satisfaction is a feeling of relative pleasure or pain. It typically refers to the attitudes of a single employee. An employee’s overall satisfaction with his job is the result of a combination of factors and financial compensation is only one of them. Management’s role in enhancing employee’s job satisfaction is to make sure the work environment is positive, morale is high and employees have the resources they need to accomplish the tasks they have been assigned.

There are different factors that affect job satisfaction as shown in figure:

1. Remuneration and Rewards

The type of linkage that is provided between job performance and rewards determines the degree of job satisfaction. If the reward is perceived to be based on the job performance and equitable, it offers higher satisfaction. If the reward is perceived to be based on considerations other than the job performance, it affects job satisfaction adversely.

2. Working Condition

Working conditions, particularly physical work environment like conditions of workplace and associated facilities for performing the job determine job satisfaction. These work in two ways. First these provide means for job performance. Second, provision of these conditions affects the individual perception about the organization. If these factors are favorable, individuals experience higher level of job satisfaction.

3. Job Content

Job content refers to the intrinsic value of the job which depends on the requirement of skills for performing it, and the degree of responsibility and growth it offers. A higher content of these factors provides higher satisfaction. For example, a routine and repetitive job provides lessen satisfaction: the degree of satisfaction progressively increases in job rotation, job enlargement and job enrichment.

4. Promotion

It is true that individual seek satisfaction in their jobs in the context of job nature and work environment but they also attach importance to the opportunities for promotion that these jobs offer. If the present job offers opportunity of promotion in future, it provides more satisfaction. If the opportunity for such promotion is lacking, it reduces satisfaction.

5. Supervision

The type of supervision affects job satisfaction. As in each type of supervision, the degree of importance attached to individuals varies. In employee oriented supervision, there is more concern for people which is perceived favorably by them and provides them more satisfaction. In job oriented supervision, there is more emphasis on the performance of the job and people become secondary. This situation decreases job satisfaction.

6. Occupation Level

Higher level jobs provide more satisfaction as compared to lower levels do. This happens because higher level jobs carry prestige and status in the society which itself becomes source of satisfaction for the job holders. For example, professionals derive more satisfaction as compared to salaried people, factory workers are least satisfied.

7. Work Group

Individuals work in group either created formally or they develop on their own to seek emotional satisfaction at the workplace to the extent, such groups are cohesive, the degree of satisfaction is high. If the group is not cohesive, job satisfaction is low as compared to that of cohesive group. People derive satisfaction out of their interpersonal interaction and workplace becomes satisfying leading to job satisfaction.

8. Level of Education

Level of education of an individual is a factor which determines the degree of job satisfaction. For example, several studies have found negative correlation between the level of education, particularly higher level of education, and job satisfaction. The possible reason for this phenomenon may be that highly educated persons have very high expectations from their jobs which remain unsatisfied in their case.

Application of Motivation Theories | Maslow’s Need Hierarchy Theory and Its Applications | Douglas’s X and Y Theory and Its Application | Herzberg’s Two Factors Theory and Its Application

Several motivational theories give importance to the basic psychological needs to explain person’s behavior including his/her involvement in goal directed behavior. Different theories have different application in the practical life. Some of the applications of motivation theories are as follows: 

Maslow’s Need Hierarchy Theory and Its Applications 

Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs
When one applies Maslow’s hierarchy of needs to organizations, the lowest order need will be that of the salary. Most people join organizations at lower levels as trainees. These people have to satisfy their physiological needs first, that is to earn money to survive. As soon as they have learnt their work, they look at fulfilling their safety needs. Safety needs will include seniority and security in the job. They aspire to complete their probationary period successfully and to be confirmed in the organization to ensure job security. Once they are confirmed, they progress to the next need in hierarchy, which is love need. Love needs will include the need to belong to a friendly work group and to widen their circle of friends at work. 

Having acquired all this, they like to be recognized for their work to fulfill their ego (or esteem) needs or the need for status and promotion. The highest is the need for self-image. Most employees do not reach the self actualization stage, as they get busy fulfilling their ego (or esteem) needs by performing well and getting promotions, status and climbing up the ladder of seniority. 

Douglas’s X and Y Theory and Its Application 

Of the two theories X and Y, Theory Y is more important for organizational growth. In order to retain employees in the Y category, organizations have to constantly motivate them, for which some of the following strategies maybe used. 

Organizations can decentralize power and control, and reduce the number of levels or layers of hierarchy, as managers will have more subordinates, they will be forced to delegate some responsibility and decision-making to them. Theory Y can be used for job enlargement by broadening the scope of employee’s job by adding variety and opportunities to satisfy ego need. Theory Y is very important for participative management by consulting employees in the decision-making process to make them feel important, tap their creative capacity, and provide them with some control over their work environment. Last but not the least, it can be used very effectively for performance appraisal by asking the employee to set their own objectives and participate in the process of evaluating their own performance by looking at how well they met their objectives. If properly implemented, such an environment would result in a high level of workforce motivation as employees work to satisfy their higher level personal needs through their jobs. 

Alderfer’s ERG Theory and Its Application 

Alderfer's ERG Theory
The implications of the ERG theory for managers are similar to the implications of the needs hierarchy. Managers should focus on meeting their employee’s needs for existence, relatedness and growth without necessarily applying the condition that they can achieve job safety only after they fulfill their job responsibilities. This means that if employees have job security along with their basic needs, their motivation levels will be higher. 

Herzberg’s Two Factors Theory and Its Application 

Herzberg's Two Factors Theory
Herzberg collected data about people’s satisfaction or dissatisfaction with their job using the critical incident technique. The analysis of this data led to propose two sets of needs: one set of needs caused dissatisfaction to people if they were met. Using his prior experience in the field of health, Herzberg proposed his two-factor theory. 

Herzberg’s theory of work motivation has led to job enrichment programs, entailing redesigning of jobs. Job enrichment attempts to build many motivators into the job as possible. The theory has also made clear that incentives and high salaries along are not enough to motivate employees. Organizations need to recognize their employee’s work and create better opportunities of growth and advancement from them.

J. S. Adams's Equity Theory and Its Application

Equity Theory of Motivation
According to John Stacey Adams, the satisfaction depends on an individual's perception and reasonableness. Applying this theory when conducting a company's performance appraisals involves balancing the assessment of an employee's contribution to his job with the compensation and other rewards associated with his success. In general, highly paid and rewarded employees tend to be the most motivated to continue performing well on the job.

Expectancy Theory of Motivation | Vroom's Expectancy Theory

Victor H. Vroom
Expectancy theory of motivation was developed by Victor H. Vroom. It was first published in 1964 in his book ‘Work and Motivation.’ Later, this theory was expanded and refined by Porter and Lawler and others. Expectancy theory is a process theory of motivation which describes the process through which need are translated into behavior. It does not explain how needs emerge as it has been described by content theories of Maslow, Herzberg and others. 

Expectancy theory of motivation states that every employee is motivated to work when he believes to achieve the things which, he wants from his work. This theory is based on the premises that every employee is a rational person. In other words, motivation is a product of the anticipated worth to a person of an action and the perceived probability that the person’s goals would be achieved. 

Expectancy Theory of Motivation

Motivational Force (M) = Expectancy (E) x Instrumentality (I) x Valence (V) 

M = (E x I x V) 

Vroom’s model suggests that motivation leads to efforts and the efforts combined with employee’s abilities (efficiency), experience, available resources, environmental factors etc. lead to performance. The performance, in turn, leads to various outcomes or results. Each outcome has some positive or negative value to the employee, which is termed as valence in this theory. When the total of all the valences are positive, the employee is motivated to make further efforts. 

According to Vroom model, the person’s level of effort (Motivation) depends upon: 

1. Expectancy 

A worker must be confident that his efforts will result in better productivity and that he has the ability to perform the task well. 

2. Instrumentality 

The worker must be confident that such high performance will be instrumental in getting the desired rewards. 

3. Valence 

The worker must value these rewards as desired and satisfactory. Hence, motivation is related to all these three factors 

Advantages of Vroom's Expectancy Theory 

  • It encourages mangers to design a motivational climate that will stimulate positive employee’s behavior. This is done by creative and effective communication with the employees.
  • This theory helps managers think about the mental processes through which motivation occurs.
  • This theory helps manager to value his employee’s human dignity because it is based on the premise that employees are capable and rationally thinking individuals. Therefore, their beliefs, perceptions and probability estimations influence their behavior.
  • It encourages managers to understand employees preferred outcomes and ensures the availability of such outcomes. 

Limitations of Vroom's Expectancy Theory 

  • It is argued that this theory has only limited use. It is because, it tends to be valid only in situations where the effort-to-performance and the performance-to-outcome linkages are clearly perceived by the employees.
  • In many organizations, employees are rewarded on the basis of seniority, educational qualifications etc. rather than on their actual performance. In such a situation, this theory tends to be idealistic and has no practical utility.
  • These are no reliable measures of valence, expectancy and instrumentality in the real work settings.
  • This theory does not consider many factors of affecting motivation force because these factors may complicate the process of predicting motivation. These factors include the role of long-term rewards, favors granted in the past, sense of loyalty, fear of losing job etc.
  • Though this theory has emerged as an important one but it has not been fully tested. This theory needs further testing to build broad-based evidences for its support.

ERG Theory of Motivation

Clayton Alderfer
Clayton Alderfer (September 1, 1940 - October 30, 2015) was an American psychologist and consultant also known for the very popular theory of Motivation called ERG Theory. ERG theory of motivation is the further development on Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs Theory developed by Abraham Maslow. 

Related Theories:

Clayton Alderfer has provided an extension of the Maslow’s need hierarchy and Herzberg’s two-factor theory of motivation, particularly the former. Like the previous theories, Alderfer believes that there is a value in categorizing needs and that there is a basic distinction between lower-order needs and higher-order needs. Based on the empirical evidences, he has found that there seems to be some overlapping between physiological, security and social needs. Also the lines of demarcation between social, esteem and achievement needs are not clear. Based on these observations, Alderfer has categorized the various needs into three categories: existence needs, relatedness needs and growth needs. The first three letters of these needs are used to call it ERG theory.

ERG Theory of Motivation

1. Existence Needs 

Existence needs include all needs related to physiological and safety aspects of an individual. Thus, existence needs group physiological and safety needs of Maslow into one category as these have similar impact on the behavior of the individual. 

2. Relatedness Needs 

Relatedness needs include all those needs that involve relationship with other people whom the individual cares. Relatedness needs cover Maslow’s social needs and that part of esteem needs which is derived from the relationship with other people. 

3. Growth Needs 

Growth needs involve the individual making creative efforts to achieve full potential in the existing environment. These include Maslow’s self actualization need as well as that part of the esteem need which is internal to the individual like feeling of being unique, feeling of personal growth.

In conclusion, ERG Theory of Motivation is very similar to the Maslow's Hierarchy of Need Theory.  The existence needs is considered as the physiological and safety needs of Maslow's hierarchy of need. Likewise, relatedness needs is considered as social needs of Maslow's theory. It includes the social desires and status for maintaining interpersonal relationships. Similarly, the growth needs of Alderfer is as similar as the Maslow's esteem category which include self-actualization needs. It is the desire for personal development which includes the self-esteem needs and self-actualization needs.

Similarities and Comparison between Maslow’s and Herzberg’s Theory of Motivation

A careful study and analysis of these two models i.e. Maslow's Hierarchy of Need Theory and Herzberg's Two Factor Theory, would suggest that they are not very much different from each other. There is much similarity between Herzberg’s and Maslow’s models. A close examination of Herzberg’s ideas indicates that what he is actually saying is that some employees may have achieved a level of social and economic progress in our society such that higher level needs of Maslow (Esteem and Self actualization) are the primary motivators. However, they just still satisfy the lower level needs for the maintenance of their current state. Thus, we can say that, money might still be a motivator for non-management workers (particularly those at a minimum wage level) and for some managerial employees. Similarities between two theories can be better explained with the help of following figure and points.

Similarities between Maslow's Hierarchy of Need Theory and Herzberg's Two Factor Theory

  1. Both the models fail to explain individual differences in motivation. 
  2. Both the models are content model. They focus on identifying needs that motivate people to do something. 
  3. Both the models assume that needs are the driving force that cause a person to do something.
  4. Both deal with the same problem.
  5. Both tend to over simplify the motivation process.

Distinction between Maslow’s and Herzberg’s Theory of Motivation 

Difference between two different theories can be better explained with the help of following points in the table.
Maslow’s Theory
Herzberg’s Theory
1. Basis
Maslow’s theory is based on hierarchy of needs.
Herzberg’s theory is based on factors that avoid dissatisfaction and pain and the factors that satisfy and motivate employees.
2. Nature of Theory
It is descriptive theory.
It is prescriptive theory.
3. Essence of Theory
The essence of this theory is that the unsatisfied needs motivate individual to work.
The essence of theory is that the gratified or satisfied needs motivate individuals for higher performance.
4. Motivators
Any unsatisfied needs or drive serve as motivator.
Only higher order needs serve as motivators.
5. Applicability
It is applicable to all the human beings working anywhere in the society irrespective of their need level.
It is more applicable to those people whose lower-level needs have been satisfied.
6. Effect of satisfaction of needs
According to this model, once a need is satisfied, it no longer motivates.
According to this model, managers must concern themselves with the satisfaction of employees in order to motivate them.

Motivation – Hygiene Theory / Herzberg’s Two - Factor Theory

Hygiene Theory or Herzberg's Two Factor theory of motivation was developed by Fredrick Herzberg on the basis of behavior science. He introduced this theory based on the contents of interviews conducted on 200 engineers and accountants. During the research, good and bad feelings of employees about the job were asked. In conclusion, two factors namely Hygiene and Motivating factors were identified as follows:

1. Hygiene Factors

Hygiene factors are also known as dissatisfaction or maintenance factors on job-context. Presence of these factors do not motivate employees but in the absence of these factors, employees will be dissatisfied or de-motivated. Following factors are included as hygiene factors:
  • Rules and regulations of company
  • Supervision and relationship with supervisors
  • Salary
  • Status
  • Personal life
  • Working condition
  • Relationship with peers
  • Relationship with subordinates
  • Security

Though these factors do not motivate employees but these factors are required to protect them from dissatisfaction. In order to get desired behavior of employees, managers should understand the feelings of employees and try fulfilling them.

Herzberg's Two Factor Theory

2. Motivating Factors

These are the factors which cause the high level of satisfaction and motivation in their presence but do not cause high level of dissatisfaction in their absence. These factors are also called motivators or satisfiers or job content factors. These factors are highly related with job content. Following factors are identified as the motivating factors:
  • Achievement
  • Recognition
  • Advancement
  • Work itself
  • Personal growth
  • Responsibility

In conclusion, Herzberg suggested that to motivate employees, job should be enriched. It can be done through making jobs more challenging, innovating, providing job freedom, opportunity of growth and recognition, guarantee of goal achievement etc. since different people have different level of needs. So, one’s satisfier can be the dissatisfier to other. Therefore, manager should identify the behavior and needs of employees and apply to different factors to satisfy them.

Advantages/ Merits of Hygiene Theory

  • It is a rational approach to motivation. It helps in understanding the effect of job content on motivation of employees.
  • It clearly distinguishes between the factors that motivate employees on the job and the factors that maintain employees on the job.
  • It recommends specific measures (i.e. motivators) to improve motivation levels.
  • It explains the significance of job enrichment on the job redesign and motivation.

Disadvantages/ Demerits of Herzberg's Two - Factory Theory

  • It is difficult to distinguish job-context factors from the job context factors in many cases; job context factors have elements of job context factors.
  • The methodology used by Herzberg is sometimes questioned. Since raters have to make interpretations, different raters may have interpreted the responses in different ways.
  • It explains the reasons of job satisfaction and dissatisfaction. Thus, it is a fact, not a theory of motivation.
  • It ignores the impact of situational variables on motivation.
  • This theory lays much emphasis on motivators and ignores the impact of hygiene factors on motivation.

Maslow’s Hierarchy of Need Theory: Motivation Theory | Assumptions of Maslow's Motivation Theory

Abraham Harold Maslow was born in April 1, 1908 in Brooklyn, New York. He noticed some needs take precedence over others and created a famous hierarchy of needs theory.

As we have already written some ideas about Maslow's Hierarchy of Need Theory in our previous post, here we are writing the more precise ideas of the theory. You can also find some ideas in the following link.

Maslow’s need hierarchy theory is one of the best and well-known theories of motivation. He propounded this theory on the basis of need of the people. He developed the hierarchy of needs model in 1940 – 50s in USA. This theory remains valid today for understanding human motivation, management training, and personal development.

The need that comes first lies at the bottom of the pyramid of need hierarchy. It means, the lower-ordered needs are experienced first. Under this, physiological needs are included like food, cloth, shelter, sex etc.

After satisfaction of the lower needs, people go to the high-order needs which can be explained as follows:

Maslow's Hierarchy of Need Theory

1. Physiological Needs

Physiological needs are first needs that people want to fulfill. It includes food, cloth, shelter, sex etc. These are also known as basic needs. People want to fulfill these needs for the survival and maintenance (continuation) of human life. Therefore, these needs are first satisfied. It lies at the bottom of the need pyramid which means there are large number of people who wants to fulfill the basic needs.

2. Safety Needs

Once the physiological needs are fulfilled, people go for the second needs that is safety or security needs. It includes safety of person, business, job etc. For the safety needs, the insurance benefits highly works. Without satisfying the physiological needs, people cannot imagine to have the safety needs.

3. Social or Affiliation Needs

After fulfilling the security needs, the man enters into the next need that is social needs as a man is a social human being. In this part, he needs to have friendship, belongingness, affection, recognition, etc. from the society. Therefore, an organization must work towards fulfilling the social needs. When they are not socially recognized, the two needs that they have already fulfilled become useless or meaningless.

4. Esteem or Ego Needs

After fulfilling the social needs, people move to the next level of satisfaction that is ego needs in which people get self-satisfied, self-confidence, self-satisfaction etc. In other words, they want high respect from the public. It makes them feel superior in the society due to recognition, appreciation, power and prestige.

5. Self-actualization Needs

It is the final level of satisfaction. According to Maslow, this self-actualization needs lie at the top of the hierarchy. This is the need ‘to be what one is capable of becoming’ and includes needs for optimum development. This implies the desire to become what one can become. In this level, people use their abilities and potentialities fully to realize the need. There are very few people which realize the self-actualization needs.

The first two needs, physiological and safety or security needs are labeled lower-level needs by Maslow. These needs are finite. A man cannot survive without them and a man will be ready to do anything to satisfy these needs. The rest three needs (social, esteem and self actualization needs) are labeled as higher-order needs. In other words, they are secondary needs. They are infinite but they are satisfied only after lower level needs are satisfied. Lower-level needs dominate higher-ordered needs. However, higher-order needs are dominant factors in motivating people at higher level in the management.

Assumptions of Maslow’s Motivation Theory

Maslow’s need hierarchy theory is based on the following propositions or assumptions.

1. Needs can be arranged in an order or a hierarchy. In this hierarchy, physiological needs are at the lowest and most basic. These needs are followed in ascending order by the safety needs, social needs, esteem needs and self-actualization needs.

2. Maslow separated the five needs into higher level needs and lower level needs. According to him physiological and safety needs are lower level or lower ordered needs whereas social, esteem and self-actualization needs are higher level needs. Maslow believed that lower-level needs are mainly satisfied externally whereas the higher level needs are satisfied internally.

3. A man is perpetually wanting animal. As soon as one of his wants or needs is satisfied, another appears in its place. This process goes on in every one’s life.

4. There is always a sequence of emergence of needs. Higher level needs do not emerge or motivate unless all lower level needs have been fairly or minimally satisfied.

5. The first four needs (Physiological, Safety, Social and Esteem Needs) motivate people by their absence. In other words, when people feel a lack of food, clothing, sex, security, social relationships, respect etc, they are motivated to work. But self-actualization needs motivate people by their presence. 

Advantages/ Merits of Maslow's Hierarchy of Need Theory

  • It is based on reasonable assumption and has been substantiated by several research studies.
  • It clearly states that a person advances to the next level of the need hierarchy only when the lower level need is minimally or fairly satisfied.
  • It is a dynamic model because it presents motivation as a constantly changing force. It considers that every individual strives for fulfillment of fresh and higher level needs.
  • It is a positive theory. It assumes that man is a healthy, good and creative being, capable of working out his own destiny.
  • It is logical theory because it recognizes that an individual does something to fulfill his diverse needs.

Disadvantages/ Demerits of Maslow's Hierarchy of Need Theory 

  • Maslow’s theory is based on a small sample of subjects. It is a clinically derived theory which may not be accurate in real life.
  • Human beings are not motivated by their needs alone but also by many other things. Therefore, it is doubtful whether deprivation of a need motivate an individual.
  • There are some who argue that there is no evidence that a satisfied need is not a motivator.
  • It is a simplistic theory and cannot be tested and validated in practice. It lacks empirical testing. It is difficult to interpret and analyze its concepts.

Meaning of Motivation | Types and Processes of Motivation

As we have already written post about the topics on motivation. We are here today to write a post on types of Motivation and the processes of Motivation. If you want to get some concept and different characteristics and importance of Motivation, you can find in the following links:

As Motivation is the psychological process of creating willingness to work and co-operate for the achievement of organizational goal. It is an inner state that energizes, activates and directs behavior towards achieving organizational goals. So, motivation always helps the people to work effectively and efficiently to achieve the goal.

Types of Motivation

There are different types of motivational techniques that are used to motivate employees in the organization. Some of the motivational techniques are listed in following figure:

Types of Motivation

1. Extrinsic Motivation

Extrinsic or external motivation is one which arises from external factors. It is related to job environment. It is the incentive or reward that a person receives after finishing his work. It includes higher wages, profit-sharing, fringe benefits and so on. Intrinsic motivators motivate some people more than extrinsic motivators. But in reality both are necessary. If wages, job security, fringe benefits are inadequate, it would be difficult to recruit and retain good personnel. Turnover, absenteeism and grievances will tend to be higher in the work place when management ignores extrinsic motivation. Therefore, a sound motivation system should provide both extrinsic and intrinsic motivations.

2. Intrinsic Motivation

Intrinsic or internal motivation comes from the satisfaction that arises while performing a job. It is an internal reward i.e. satisfaction which comes while a person is performing his job. Thus, it is a motivation that arises out of a job itself. It is an internal stimulus resulting from job content and not from job environment. Herzberg suggested for job enrichment in order to provide intrinsic motivation. Higher responsibility, opportunity for achievement and individual growth, praise social recognition, etc. are the basic sources of intrinsic motivation.

3. Positive Motivation

Positive motivation is the process of persuading the people to carry out the work by reward. In other words, it is the process of influencing people towards the work. In positive motivation, the people are given different incentives like promotion, reward, increase in payment etc. Positive motivation induces people to do work in the best possible manner and to improve their performance. In most cases, positive motivation greatly works in winning the heart of the employees to make the work done efficiently, significantly and effectively. Under this, better facilities and rewards are provided for their better performance. Such rewards and facilities may be financial and non financial. This approach of motivation is also called ‘Carrot Approach.’

4. Negative Motivation

Negative motivation is the process of forcing people to carry out the work not by reward but by threat or punishment. In negative motivation, different actions are taken against the employees if they don’t work in accordance with direction like disciplinary action, demotion, loss of job, etc. Negative motivation is required when people show negative attitude towards the work and organization. It creates a fear in their mind which will show a positive response towards their duties. Negative motivation aims at controlling the negative efforts of the work and seeks to create a sense of fear for the workers, which he has to suffer for lack of good performance. It is based on the concept that if a worker fails in achieving the desired results, he should be punished. This approach of motivation is also called ‘Hot Stove Approach’.

In fact, both positive and negative motivations are essential in an organization. But, the fact that the work done by heart is more fruitful than the work done forcefully. When a person feels himself to perform in a better way then, it creates enthusiasm and the result is more effective in comparison to the negatively motivated employees. However, both are required in accordance with the need of the organization.

5. Financial Motivation

Financial motivation is the pecuniary motivation and occurs from direct or indirect monetary benefits. Pay and allowance, incentive pay, gain sharing, profit-sharing plans, pension plans, health insurance plans, stock options etc. are the direct financial benefits.

6. Non-financial Motivation

It is one which is not associated with monetary rewards. In fact, non-financial motivation is psychic in nature. It comes from the satisfaction of higher-level needs i.e. social, esteem and self-actualization needs. Work environment, praise, recognition, promotions, more authority and responsibility etc. are the non-financial motivators.

Process of Motivation

The motivational process is the steps that people take to get motivated for the incredible results. If people are properly motivated, they can do the things amazingly. Like any other process, it takes a little work and foresight and planning. The motivational process determines what we want to be motivated to do or to accomplish. This is a specific goal in a very specific area of your life. The motivational process is not best for general motivation, but works best when we need to get motivated to do a specific task, or reach a specific goal. Similarly, it makes up the steps to get the determined goals, little by little.

1. Unsatisfied Needs and Motives

The motivation process starts from the unsatisfied needs. Human is motivated to satisfy needs. Unsatisfied needs cause tension within an individual. Therefore, to release from tension, one has to fulfill unsatisfied needs. Until and unless needs are satisfied, no work can be done satisfactorily.

2. Tension

The tension can be physical and psychological. An individual is not motivated until tension exist in his/her mind. Once need is created, it brings remarkable changes in the behavior of employee to accomplish the job.

3. Action

An individual engages in an action to satisfy needs and motives so as to reduce the level of stress. The best alternative is selected from among many alternatives which help to satisfy needs and motive.

4. Goal Achievement

Goals can be achieved through proper use or reward or punishment. Only motivated employees can help to achieve organizational goal in an anticipated manners.

5. Feedback

Feedback is the response regarding the outcome of motivation. The outcome can be positive or negative indicating how well the goal is accomplished. Once existing needs and motives are satisfied, it ultimately creates new unsatisfied needs and motives. Thus, it is an ongoing process.