Result Oriented Administration / Result Oriented Management

Every action has a mission, vision or goal. The mission or goal must be determined before taking action. Then strategies are formulated on how to get there and work is done according to the strategy. 

All the people or organization requires inputs to reach the mission or goal. No output can be obtained without input. Automatic output is expected when input is invested. Result or output is also the objective effect of public action. Result-oriented management is when the input is invested in it, what is the outcome, what is the quality maintained, whether the consumer or service recipient is satisfied with the return received or not. Therefore, managerial activities that are aimed at achieving concrete results with an emphasis on outcome and not on input are called result-oriented management. Effective management also requires competent bureaucracy. 

In the view of the public, the reality of the government is the bureaucracy or administration for the citizens to get services and facilities. Administration is also called permanent government which helps in making the activities of running the state effective and result oriented. In fact, result-oriented management is a new dimension of public management. It emphasizes result-oriented rather than procedural action. The emphasis of result-oriented management is not on how the work was done and who did it or whether the policy rules were not fulfilled, but on what was done, how much was done, who went and what was achieved.

Similarly, in result-oriented management, the goals and objectives of each activity are determined and necessary strategies and programs are prepared and implemented towards reaching the goal. In which result oriented efforts / measures are adopted in every action and process from goal setting to accomplishing the set goal.

Result oriented management is not a separate administration but a means of achieving real results through administrative management. It expects excellent performance and pays special attention to both quantitative and qualitative aspects of managerial activities. In particular, it plays an important role in achieving goals. Effective management also plays a role in materializing abstract managerial activities. 

Some Glaring examples are; 
  • If money is given to a training center, it should be given on the basis of how many people have been trained and got job rather than on the basis of number of trainees.
  • Educational institutions in Arkansas and Florida in the USA stopped giving training funds because they got less than 70 percent work.
  • The funding should be done on the durability of road rather than the length of road to be constructed.
  • School funding should be based on pass out rate and high rank percentage.

Indicators to Measure Results
  • Efficiency criteria: - To increase the return by keeping the budget stable.
  • Criteria of economy: - Minimizing the input but the output remains the same.
  • Criteria of effectiveness: - The difference between what was expected and what was achieved is the criterion of effectiveness.
  • Criteria of service: - Criteria of service is the measurement of citizen's satisfaction in the goods and services provided.
  • Output measure: - It measures services and facilities made avail from the specified expenditure.
  • Impact measure: - Measuring the level of impact, i.e. the final impact on the society from the amount expenditure.
  • SMART: - Criteria should be SMART i.e. SMART objective. SMART means specified, measurable, achievable, reliable / reasonable representative, time bound.

Techniques / Process for Result Orientation
  • Clearly defining mission, vision or goal or objective
  • Determining strategies / tactics
  • Preparation of outline of plans and programs
  • Management of necessary resources including budget
  • Determining work and working procedures
  • Determining the schedule
  • Implementation of programs or activities
  • Effective monitoring and evaluation
  • Analysis of results
  • Backing up

Some tips of Result Orientation
  • Think of what can be measured and what can be done.
  • If we can't measure results, failure can't be separated from success.
  • If you can't see success, you can't reward it.
  • If you can't reward success, have you rewarded failure? Think of it.
  • If you don't see success, you can't learn from it.
  • If you don't recognize failure, you can't improve.
  • If you can demonstrate the results, you will be with the people.

Significance of Result Oriented Management
  • To achieve materialistic achievement
  • Benefit to the target group
  • Proper use of resources
  • Administrative commitment
  • Increasing the level of public participation
  • Increase in productivity
  • Increasing levels of motivation
  • Increase the capacity of the working class
  • Cost-per-unit return can be measured
  • Developing administrative professionalism
  • Promoting work culture
  • Increase the reputation of the organization
  • Increase people's trust in the organization, etc.

Issue / challenges of Result Oriented Management
  • Traditional organizational structure
  • Domination of politics in the administration
  • Lack of modern management
  • Lack of professionalism in administration
  • Centralized management system
  • Excessive government involvement
  • Procedural legal complications
  • Lack of capacity to use resources
  • Lack of administrative responsibility and accountability
  • Uncertain Terms of Service
  • Corruption
  • Lack of managerial values ​​and recognition
  • Unbalanced public participation
  • Lack of easy access to public services
  • Uncertainty in the availability of public services
  • Not paying attention to institutional development and expansion
  • Public grievance management is not effective
  • Lack of guarantee of good governance etc.

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New Public Service (NPS): An innovative concept of public management

New Public Service (NPS) is an innovative concept of public management. This concept was developed by Danhardt and Danhardt in 2003 to provide public services to the citizens in a new way. This is a strong critique and alternative to the New Public Management (NPM). The main objective of new public service is to learn from the theory of democratic system rather than from the theory of the private sector. 

Related Topic:

New Public Management: Meaning and Concept

This concept was originally developed from the Scandinavian countries and is considered a new form of public management (NPM) and improved governance. In the study of public management, the new public service is considered as a concept that sensitively prioritizes not only facts but also values, makes the administration feel responsible and accountable towards the citizens, and characterizes administrative professionalism, creativity, discipline and people-oriented administration. This NPS criticizes the for-profit and city-oriented private sector and deepens the responsibilities and obligations of public management in a democratic manner. The importance of NPS introduced in administration / management with the objective of promoting improved public service flow is increasing day by day. In a state system with unlimited responsibilities, the NPS carries the spirit of service-friendliness, not only by serving the people, but also by making the people feel at ease. NPS makes public management action-oriented, results-oriented, people-oriented, change-oriented, accountable, participatory and exploratory. 

New public service (NPS) has not been effectively implemented in Nepal's public management. Among the policy, structural, procedural and practical dimensions in this regard, the practical dimension is very weak. It has become imperative to make the administration customer-friendly as well as participatory, transparent, accountable, change-oriented and exploratory, while some rules and regulations need to be amended and changed in a timely manner.

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Public Service Delivery System and ways to make delivery system effective

Meaning of Public Service

Public service is an essential service facility or commodity linked to the livelihood or existence of the society or the common man. Public service is a bridge connecting the government and the general public. Such services are provided by the government through its administrative channels. Similarly, a public service is a service provided to the general public or citizen or organizations. Such as security, defense, rule of law, community service, essential services, employment, communication and technology services and other service. As a whole, the work performed by the state and the goods and services provided to fulfill the needs and wants of public are public services. 

It seems appropriate to present Adam Smith's views on public service. According to Smith, "all those public institutions and public works that are characterized by the fact that their profits can never be repaid by investment or it is a public function, which is the kind that cannot be repaid by investment." Therefore, individuals or groups of individuals cannot build or maintain it. ” We can also say that public service is the service provided by the service provider i.e. government or state to the service recipient i.e. public or general people. 

Meaning of Public Service Delivery System

The flow of public service is the process by which the government or the state provides services to the citizens in a fast, economical and effective manner, which can be guaranteed by the common man. It is the responsibility of the state to provide public services. In this context, the technology / method / mechanism to provide services, facilities, goods to the general public is called delivery system. The delivery system is the mechanism for distributing the beneficial goods, services and facilities received from any organization.

In Nepal, all the essential, basic, infrastructure-based, commercial and other services are provided from the public (government) level. There are various policy, legal, institutional and procedural arrangements to make the basic service delivery systematic and effective. However, there is not much effectiveness in service delivery.

The government has put great efforts in administrative reform for a long period of time to make the flow of services to the general public effective. Although efforts have been made to simplify and streamline government work, decentralize services, provide adequate and capable manpower in service centers, and streamline service delivery, its implementation has been weak and even the basic foundations for ensuring public services have not been strengthened. Due to traditional thinking and lack of positive perceptions in the administration; limited means and resources; lack of transparency, accountability, responsibility; lack of highest utilization of information technology; lack of awareness of the client; lack of pressure groups; lack of simple and clear procedures etc., public service has not been effective.

Features and Characteristics of Public Services
  • Public services are provided by government and governmental body.
  • It is the responsibility of government or state to deliver public services.
  • The state never aims for profit while providing public services.
  • Receiving public services from the state is a civil right. It is also linked to human rights.
  • Public services are theoretically fair.
  • Public service is related to the life of a citizen.
  • Public service flows in accordance with the law and prescribed guidelines.
  • The service recipient or the consumer of the service can also participate in the distribution of public service.
  • Public service investment cannot be paid as profit.
  • Public service is a means of connecting the government and the common man.

Importance of Public Services
  • Related to the existence of community or citizen.
  • As the main responsibility of the state.
  • The main basis for increasing the trust of the people towards the government.
  • Helps to increase the legitimacy of the government in state power.
  • Good public service is also a sign of good governance. Accountable and forward-looking government.
  • The most important task or objective of any government is to provide necessary services to the people.
  • Adequacy, timeliness, equity, equality, quality, economy, efficiency, relevance, etc. are important elements of the flow of growth.

Strengths and Weakness of Public Service Delivery System in Nepal

  • Citizen centered service delivery system has been adopted.
  • Citizens' charter has been provided to make the service effective, fast and economical and charter with compensation has also been introduced in the offices.
  • Mobile service has been operated from time to time with the objective of providing door-to-door service to the people.
  • An integrated service center has been started to provide various services.
  • Complaints of citizens have been heard, public hearing system has been adopted, arrangements have been made for "Hello Government", etc.
  • Double shifts services are delivered.
  • Monitoring work related to service delivery has been started expeditiously.

Weakness / Problems in Public Service Delivery
  • The service has become more traditional and more process oriented.
  • The service could not be mapped.
  • No priority in service.
  • Inadequacy and low quality of service
  • No attention has been paid to increase the capacity and efficiency of service providers.
  • Could not provide appropriate incentive to service provider.
  • The service flow could not be linked to the employee merit system.
  • Insufficiency of resources and failure to make maximum use of available resources.
  • The relationship between the service provider and the client has not been reliable and smooth.
  • Lack of social inclusion in service delivery.
  • Citizens' charter has not been used properly.
  • There have been irregularities in the service flow.
  • Lack of client-friendly physical infrastructure.
  • Lack of tendency for service providers to hear complaints responsibly.
  • Lack of social responsibility in the private sector.
  • Improper use of power.
  • Lack of transparency, accountability and responsibility.
  • Lack of effective monitoring.

How to make Delivery System Effective?
  • The focus of the delivery system should be the citizen not the producers or suppliers. The demands of the people must be addressed.
  • Citizens' satisfaction should be the focal point while providing goods, services and facilities.
  • There should be mass involvement of the people or it is necessary, as far as possible.
  • Government officials should pay attention to the results that will serve the people, rather than flirting or reacting to small things.
  • The needs of the people should be met rather than providing easy service.
  • The needs, demands and concerns of the people should be looked at carefully and such needs and demands should be adjusted in the system.
  • Citizens' grievance redressal system should be established and the system should be easy and simplified and when there is no need for results or achievement should be provided instead.
  • As much as possible, other potential participants should be involved so that various needs and demands can be met and efficiency can be achieved.
  • Public bodies providing services should be made fully accountable with resources and rights.
  • Adopt holistic or integrated method to get maximum opportunity.
  • There should always be enthusiasm or morale for continuous improvement.

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Strategic Management: Meaning, Features and Significance of Strategic Management

Meaning of Strategy and Strategic Management

The word strategy derives from military administration. The term strategy refers to the tactics and tactics adopted during the war to mobilize the army. Whether they are soldiers or administrators or businessmen, the purpose of all these is to achieve the objectives of the organization. Strategy is the crucial method to prepare the organization to face the growing uncertain future. Strategy is a perfect way to achieve the goals and objectives of the organization. When the New Public Management (NPM) is introduced in the administration, strategy became associated with long-term. The main objective of New Public Management (NPM) is to achieve result. So, if there is no strategy, the organization is without direction. According to Nutt and Back Off, the strategy focuses on where the emphasis should be given. Similarly, strategic activities also focuses on the objectives by formulating plan, structure, situations, movement and the perspectives.

Initially, it was developed as strategic planning and later on strategic planning was replaced by strategic management in the 1980s.

Strategic Management refers to managing strategically. That is, the act of strategically identifying a situation and using knowledge strategically is called strategic management. Due to globalization and economic liberalization and open market environment, the use of strategic management has become more widespread to meet the challenges faced by the management of any sector.

Strategic thinking is assimilated in the method adopted for the effective management of any organization. The tactical approach adopted as a tactic to mobilize the army during the war is widely used in modern times in the management of the private and public sectors. 

According to Michael Armstrong, “Strategic management is the visionary management that is concerned with creating ideas and maintaining concepts about where the organization should go. But it is also an experience-based management that will decide how to get the organization to that point in practice. ” 

Similarly, in the words of V. P. Michael, "Strategic management is the systematic and justified management process that is adopted to achieve certain long-term objectives in a way that suits the existing and expected forces and elements."

In strategic management, there is a plan but even if there is a plan, attention should be paid to the implementation because there is a human factor. Human is a factor that influences the culture and management of an organization.

Strategic Management deals with the following topics like bringing results, new marketing, new products, new technology, etc. In this sense, strategic management is very broad. It integrates the plan with every component of the organization. It expands the future strategic format through each unit of the organization. It is not mechanical, it recognizes the central role of the individuals and groups present in the organization, it influences the culture of the organization. 

Features of Strategic Management
  • Dealing with basic queries related to the organization
  • Situation based
  • To root out the main problem
  • Predicting the impact
  • Utilization of different opportunities
  • Determining priorities
  • Realistic plans
  • Us of the best experience
  • Ensuring the availability of resources
  • Arrangement of practical management structure
  • Flexibility
  • Top management activeness
  • Collective guidance, etc.

Significance of Strategic Management
  • Long-term vision
  • Oriented towards strategic success
  • Motivated managers and employees
  • Assist towards environmental needs
  • Assist in the formulation of objective plan and its implementation
  • More effective decision making process
  • Arrangements for procedural monitoring and adjustment
  • Strategy in Public Sector

This trend is started in the early 1980s in the public sector. It was introduced in later period in the private sector. The public sector should have the following:
  • There should be a statement of overall mission and objectives.
  • There should be environmental analysis or scanning.
  • There should be an audit of the internal profile and resources of the organization.
  • Strategies should be formulated, evaluated and selected.
  • Strategic plan should be implemented and controlled.

According to the scholars Osborne and Gaebler, strategic planning is the current and future projection of an organization or community, setting and measuring goals. It should include the following:
  • Analysis of external and internal situation
  • Identification of important issues faced by the organization
  • Basic mission of the organization
  • Presentation and adjustment of basic goals of the organization
  • Creation of the future form of the organization
  • Imagine the success of the organization
  • Development of strategies for realizing vision, mission and goals
  • Development of time table for measuring strategy and evaluating results

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Lean Management: Establishing a Competitive Management System

Lean management means establishing a competitive management system by making the organization structurally and procedurally agile. It aims at developing efficiency in production, simplicity and efficiency in service delivery, improvement in quality, adoption of prompt production cycle measures, and development-oriented tendencies. Lean management emphasizes on the structural aspects of management, the systemic aspect of work and the agility of staff management. This lean management can be changed as per the need, acceptable to the client, operated by expert and skilled and technically skilled staff, economical and efficiency based, more productive than procedural, encouraging change oriented creativity, reduced hierarchy and wide scope of control.

Lean management is a unique and effective tool to ensure continuous improvement of organizational management. It is a process of gradual but continuous improvement. It is also a strategic improvement of the accelerated process. It was first used only in the manufacturing sector, later in the service sector and is now used in the military, police and public sectors. Lean management reduces unnecessary costs and aims to measure the satisfaction of its customers as well as stakeholders. 

Techniques/ Processes of Lean Management
  • Unnecessary staff cuts
  • Development of group work
  • Focus on production process
  • Participatory management
  • Delegation of rights and responsibilities
  • Minimization of waste
  • Minimization of human resources
  • Development of human resources
  • Focus on creative discipline
  • Cooperation and partnership building
  • Use of new technology
  • Use of flexible time
  • Unproductive costs and system reduction
  • Emphasis on quality service delivery
  • Expert service contracts
  • Appropriate structural framework
  • Utilization of external capacity
  • Quick fulfillment of customer needs
  • Support for good governance
  • Focus on continuous improvement

Steps and Processes of Lean Management

1) In terms of policy

The organization should clearly identify its scope of work; do not work by government sector in such areas where the private sector and non-governmental organizations work; Emphasizing decentralization and liberalization; Focus all attention towards customer / consumer.

2) As a resource

To motivate, coordinate and arrange contracts for human resources as per the need; Arranging optimal use of financial resources; Achieving results using the full potential of physical resources; To make effective use of sources of data and information.

3) Organizational view

To establish an organization only for clear objectives and goals; Improving and changing the organizational structure; To carry out local level works from the community or private sector on issues other than the mandatory presence of the government. 

4) Administrative view

To expedite the work through modern information technology; Reducing levels of decision; Competent leadership and delegation of authority; Motivated staff management etc.

5) Simplified process

Assign the contact person; effective management of Citizen Charter; Arranging procedures and directives; Implementing e-governance.

In the context of Nepal,
  • Lean concept is accepted
  • Started organizational reform
  • Arranged a Citizen Charter with compensation
  • Arrangement of helpdesk
  • Arrangement of Nodal Officer
  • Mobile governance
  • Hello Sakar system
  • Arrangement of two shift operations in urgent places
  • Arrangement of compulsory training for employees
  • Employee contract arrangement etc.

Value Production Process

Value production is the ultimate goods and services. Each layer in the line adds value. Whatever results are obtained at the end point of the organization is the result of a series of long steps. The main basis for the survival of any organization is to produce the right value at the right time and at the right price. 

The structure of our organizations is based on a vertical process, which is the structure of organizations around the world, while the facilities and goods available to the people are horizontal. If there is no one to look horizontally in the organizational structure, then that organization becomes an orphan. As most of the management's assessments are accountable only to their respective departments, the results have been poor. Usually the flow of value is not completely normal, as well as what the needs of the people are, not even looking at the important business needs of the organization, they use what they have learnt or know. 

Lean Value Principles
  1. Price Specialization:- Ingredient based and satisfaction based.
  2. Identify the flow of value
  3. Flow - to make value creating
  4. Continuous pulling
  5. To adopt perfection
  6. Price instead of waste

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Meaning of Contract and Contract Out: A tool of New Public Management (NPM)

Contract refers to an agreement between two parties or more persons to create and define liability. If the contract is broken or not done as per the agreement, treatment is provided by law. Similarly, contract is an agreement between two or more parties to do or not to do something that can be implemented according to the law. 

Contract out is a tool of New Public Management (NPM). It is an important tool to reduce government expenditure and build a smarter government. Service delivery is on the rise, as the government's financial position is not good, the market is faster and simpler than the bureaucracy and it is the most attractive way to provide services and goods to the people. 

The main function of the government is to provide services to the people, not to hire unwanted employees and the contract system has become better as the market or private sector is better and faster than the government. Nepal has also been adopting contracting out system under the cost reduction system. The process is simple and easy. It has become very attractive in recent times as it gives priority to the outside rather than within the organization. 

Scope of Contracting Out
  • Tax and accounting system
  • Supply and purchase
  • Computer programming
  • Training administration
  • Customer service
  • Transportation of goods and services
  • Salary, facilities and compensation plan
  • Salary report
  • Internal security, gardener, courier, sanitation, maintenance etc. 

Benefits of Contract Out
  • Helps to reduce monopolistic power of the government.
  • Cost saving and gain working efficiency.
  • New technology can be introduced and learnt. The client also introduces new technology.
  • It makes easier to sell cheaply due to cash flow.

Challenges of Contracting Out
  • Quality cannot be maintained due to poor quality control. There may be compromise in quality.
  • Long process.
  • Can remove the strategic direction of the organization.
  • Loyalty to the organization decreases.
  • There can be two types of problems when making a monopoly contract. For example, service providers tend to reduce cost by reducing quality and become monopolistic because there is not much choice.
  • They work together, increase the cost by carteling.

Process of Contracting Out
  • The service is to be done by oneself, whether it is done jointly or from outside.
  • Choose the sector to be given.
  • Contract can be given on the based of nature and availability of service.
  • Needs and demand of services are assessed by users.
  • Agree and contract with the service provider.
  • Supply quality and quantity of goods and services according to price.
  • Government should look after Equity and technical parts.
  • There should be virtuous and non-corrupt behavior.

Necessary Content to be included in Contract Document
  • Service should be measured.
  • Specify the value of service.
  • Change in mechanism for high level needs.
  • To see the arrangement of change and mechanism of service.
  • State the mechanism in case of terminating the agreement.
  • Fix the level of results to be served.
  • Must have complete details about the service.
  • There should be flexibility according to the change.
  • Mention who and when according to contract.
  • The amendment aspect of the service standard should also be mentioned.
  • There should be a mechanism to monitor the quality of service.

Contract Management

The concept of contract management was started since 2001 and is still growing in importance. Contract management have been even made for office cleaning, gardener's work, machine maintenance and maintenance work. There is more emphasis on cost cutting than the means of serving the people.

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Reinventing Government: Concept, Achievement and Features of Reinventing Government

Concept / Introduction

In the early 1990s, when American governments were plagued by a series of shortcomings, some innovative and exemplary institutions emerged outside the public sector. Those organizations were fast, decentralized, up-to-date and work-oriented. They were also flexible and adaptable (able to adapt to new changes). They also used competitive, customer-oriented and non-staffed mechanisms to get the job done. 

Versalia, California, etc. had a clear impact on this entrepreneurship. The product of these things began to be applied in the public sector as a Reinventing Government. As this method and procedure leads to annual budget lapse, it also eliminates the need to spend budget money anyway at the end of the year and encourages managers to save budget. This budget money is ours and the feeling of spending it like this was awakened.

Budget system related to expenditure control was implemented. At the same time, with the change in the environment, the management has started to provide the facility to change. The line item budget system was removed and administrators were given the right to spend where required. The saved budget amount was also given the right to be spent next year, even in new priorities. Many such examples (Versalia, California) began to be found in the USA and ideas regarding Reinventing developed.

Reflecting on such things, after various studies, researches and investigations in 1992, the scholarly authors Osborne and Gaebler published a practical book with the idea that Reinventing should be done. According to these writers, the government can still do better than the market system and the government or the bureaucracy is neither necessary nor efficient, so the government (administration) must be Reinventing.

The book contains time-relevant chapters and introduces it as an American Perestroika. Other chapters include Reinventing Government as Anticipatory Government, Catalytical Government, Community-owned Government, Competitive Government, Customer-driven Government, Enterprising Government, Mission -driven Government, Decentralized Government, Result-oriented Government, Market-oriented Government etc.

10 points of Reinventing Government
  1. Entrepreneurial government will also implement and encourage competition among service providers.
  2. To bring the powers of government to the people or to empower the people. Empower rather than serve.
  3. Performance should not be input -oriented but result - oriented i.e. result should be good.
  4. Entrepreneurial government should move from process oriented administration to its mission.
  5. Entrepreneurial government meets the needs of customers and not bureaucracy. Therefore, with the choice, the public was called customer instead of client.
  6. Providing service before arising any problems.
  7. Entrepreneurial government should focus on earning rather than spending.
  8. They decentralized authority; Embrace simple management and team work system.
  9. In the process of providing services and facilities to the people, the market mechanism has been promoted rather than the bureaucracy. This is an attempt to bring change in the market.
  10. The government will play a catalytic role among the private, public and voluntary organizations in the society to solve the problems of the people's community. 

These 10 principles are an inseparable collective concept. The authors seem to have the idea that they do something even if they do not solve many problems.

Achievements / Features of Reinventing Government
  • Expenditure controlled budget system has been implemented.
  • The management has provided the facility to change with the change in the environment.
  • Line item budget system was removed and administrators were given the right to spend where required.
  • The saved budget amount was carried towards next year and given right to be spent on new priorities.

Some Examples for Reinventing Government
  • America has the worst public school even the world is so developed.
  • Courts and prisons are overcrowded.
  • Formerly worth doing or proud states and cities have actually gone bankrupt. In addition, millions of employees were laid off and billions of budget deficits or those states started running deficit budgets.
  • Accused persons / criminals started walking openly.
  • Very good and enterprising people do not want to come into government service. According to a survey conducted in the late 1980s, only 5% of people want to come into government service.
  • Thousands of Americans are homeless.
  • Millions of American children do not have health insurance, meaning they are deprived of health care.

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Business Process Re-engineering (BPR): Concept | Business Process Reengineering in Public Sector

Introduction of Business Process Re-engineering (BPR)

Business Process Re-engineering (BPR) is the process / method of emphasizing the improvement of the working processes of any organization. This is a revolutionary process. This process forgets the previous process and start from zero. The goal of business process re-engineering (BPR) is to dramatically increase or change efficiency, effectiveness and quality. It seeks holistic change within the organization. Changes are sought in each structure. BPR is not a continuous improvement, it is a revolutionary change. To restructure the organization's processes, activities, related systems and organizational structures through BPR in order to dramatically improve the work process. The BPR method is to forget the whole process of today and start a new process. There are four reasons why BPR is needed:
  • Financial performance
  • External competition
  • Declining market share
  • New opportunities created in the market, etc.

Business process re-engineering (BPR) does not mean down sizing, mechanization, restructuring, new technology, reorganization, etc. BPR is the testing and modification of the five major components of an organization. These include;
  • Testing and changing strategies
  • Testing and changing processes
  • Testing and changing technology
  • Testing and changing organizations
  • Testing and changing culture, and so on. 

This concept of business process re-engineering (BPR) originally came from the private sector. Re-engineering, a 1993 book by Michael Hammer and James Champy, brought this idea to the force. According to the book, BPR is a process of fundamentally redesigning its business processes and revolutionizing its structure in order to dramatically change the way an organization performs. As in TQM, it incorporates customer control systems and culture and information systems strategies into the BPR process. TQM adopts small improvement processes but BPR improves and changes the whole process.

BPR Process: - BPR goes through the following five specific stages:
Business Process Re-engineering

  • Define the goals and objectives of the BPR Process.
  • Start the learning process with customers, employees and non-competitors and with new technologies.
  • See the future today, to start the necessary new process.
  • Planning will be done on the basis of projections and gaps in the existing process.
  • Implementing appropriate solutions. 

Business Process Re-engineering (BPR) in Public Sector
  • BPR is more challenging to implement in the public sector than in the private sector.
  • It seeks change and coordination between the lines of every authority of the bureaucracy.
  • The more revolutionary change is sought in the government sector, the greater the risk, the more radical change, the more opposition.
  • The US General Accounting Office has developed a guideline for the evaluation of BPR, in which nine issues are identified and placed in the following three major areas. 
Section 1:
  1. Has the organization really re-evaluated its mission, fundamental and strategic goals?
  2. Has the organization identified the performance problem and set the criteria for its improvement?
  3. Has the organization really done re-engineering? 

Section 2:
  1. Is this re-engineering process properly organized?
  2. Has BPR's project team analyzed the intended targeting process and developed possible alternatives based on it?
  3. Has the team implementing BPR prepared a healthy business case to implement the new process?

Section 3:
  1. Has this organization followed the overall implementation plan?
  2. Have the organization's chief executives addressed change management issues?
  3. Did the new process achieve the expected results?

In the early stages, more than half of the Re-engineering (BPR) projects failed. So, there was a lot of discussion about the key to its success, and after 24 months of research into 150 BPR implemented companies, it was discovered that BPR could be implemented if the following things were done:
  • Commitment of top management (strong / strong consistent engagement)
  • Strategic affiliation (organization strategy and direction)
  • Pressurized business case for change (with measurable purpose)
  • With a clearly defined method (including future formatting)
  • Effective change management (addresses cultural transformation
  • Line ownership
  • Re-engineering group structure (all necessary groups including those with knowledge)

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Government: Roles and Functions of Government

Concept of Government

The government is the body that rules independently through the state system to fulfill the wishes of the people within the specified territory. The government is the main mechanism or representative of the sovereign state and is the body that exercises the executive power of the state in accordance with the law. Similarly, the government is the legal entity or body responsible for mobilizing the state, protecting and promoting it, and developing and expanding it in all respects. 

In short, the government is the statutory body established by the people to govern the country. It is guided by the method and system of government. Its main function is to develop the country and provide services to the people. 

According to Prof. Garner's words, "Government is the mechanism by which the general policies of the state are determined, the general affairs are regulated and the general interest is promoted. In the absence of a government, the population will be disorganized, unorganized, anarchic and it will not be possible to take any collective action. ” 

Functions of Government

The main task of the government is to ensure the living standards of the people as the government does the following:
  • Maintenance of peace, security and law and order
  • Function of health and quality environment
  • Community and social security
  • Arrangement of quality education and transportation
  • Supply of essential goods and services
  • Maintenance of national integrity and unity
  • Public policy formulation, implementation and evaluation
  • Addressing national level planning issue and program formulation, implementation and evaluation
  • Development of infrastructure of development
  • Development of water resources, tourism and agricultural sectors
  • Urban planning and welfare
  • Technology and methodological development and research work
  • Functions that cannot be operated and handled by non-government and private sector
  • Maintenance of minimum quality of goods and services 

Due to the above arrangements, the role of the government became even stronger. In particular, if the private sector is to make good progress in the world market, it should be able to provide the following inputs: - to provide the best knowledge and skilled workers, to do more valuable research, to provide the cheapest capital possible, to form the best foundations and policies. 

Roles of Government

1. In the Context of Development:
  • Strategic role
  • Protector
  • Facilitator
  • Regulatory
  • Promoter
  • Investigator
  • Evaluator and Monitor
  • Coordinator
  • Negotiator
  • Resource mobilize
  • Planner
  • Partner etc.

2. According to Anderson, 
  • Providing diverse economic infrastructure
  • Make avail public goods and services
  • Resolve and adjust the differences / conflicts / conflicts in the pluralistic society or between the groups
  • Ensuring and maintaining competition
  • Protection and Conservation of natural resources
  • Ensuring public access to existing public goods and services in the economy
  • Stabilization of economy

3. According to Osborne and Gaebler,
  • Anticipatory Government
  • Catalytical Government
  • Community-owned Government
  • Customer-driven Government
  • Competitive Government
  • Decentralized Government
  • Enterprising Government
  • Mission-driver Government
  • Market-oriented Government
  • Result-oriented Government, etc.

4. Plan Specified
  • Maintenance of peace, security and fair justice in the country
  • Improvement of quality of goods and services
  • Formulation of plan, policy and programs
  • Protection and promotion of human rights
  • Social activities such as poverty alleviation, inclusive development, women's development, social empowerment, upliftment of backward castes, etc.
  • Creation of competitive environment
  • Practice of local autonomy
  • Policy and action initiatives to maintain social justice and regional balance
  • Expansion of industry and trade, etc.

5. Unforgotten Roles of Government while Governing
  • Promotion of national interest in which sovereignty, integrity, protection of national identity, national honor and pride are intact
  • Guarantee of constitutional essence including democratic and democratic system, constitutional supremacy, civil rights, human rights, etc.
  • Peace and stability
  • Poverty alleviation 
  • Ensuring rule of law
  • Emphasis on good governance
  • Inclusion, social justice and development
  • Development of economic, social and physical infrastructure
  • Effective delivery of public services
  • Rural and urban development
  • Strengthening and development of international relations
  • Values ​​and principles guided by the constitution

6. In the context of changing environment of the world
  • New approach and role
  • Globalization, economic liberalization and privatization
  • Decentralization and localization
  • Use of science and technology and information technology
  • Carriers and catalysts of change
  • Private sector and civil society etc.

In conclusion, Government is an alternative to failure in other areas. Government efforts alone may not be enough for economic and social upliftment, but the government must create a strong presence and a conducive environment. For the public, the reality of government is bureaucracy. Administration is also called permanent government. Therefore, even if the market is very powerful, the government has to intervene from time to time because the market can fail at any time. In any case, the government is the government, that is, the last weapon is the government.
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New Public Management : Meaning and concept (NPM)

Meaning and Concept of New Public Management (NPM)

New public management (NPM) is the managerial process in which administrative activities are led to improve the administrative ability to make the function of the government or the state as successful and significant as in the management of the private sector. In this, efforts have been made to increase administrative efficiency, effectiveness and efficiency by introducing good managerial aspects invented and developed in the private sector in public administration and to make managerial transformation. In this sense, NPM is the practice of using management principles, models and tools to make the role of the state effective and meaningful. The NPM focuses more on outcomes than on processes, on accountability rather than on irresponsibility, and on management rather than administration. At the same time, the NPM believes that the traditional shortcomings in the administration should be removed and transformed into a competitive, efficient, effective and result-oriented management. 

In fact, NPM has been conceptually developed to meet and manage the challenges posed by globalization, economic liberalization, privatization, increasing international competition and rapid changes in technology in the late 1980's and early 1990's. It encourages the adoption of the good aspects developed by the private sector in the public sector as well as helps to make public administration / management efficient, productive, effective and accountable. It is also able to achieve qualitative improvement in the flow of public services. NPM also adopts flexible, effective and useful and market-oriented policies.

NPM concept has led to a wide-ranging change in the role of government as well as following the good aspects of private sector management, emphasizing the relationship between government and civil society. Apart from NPM, it is also known as New Managerialism or Managerialism or New Taylorism, Entrepreneurial government, Market-based Public Administration etc. 

Reasons for Development of New Public Management (NPM)

1. Aggression and Criticism in the Public Sector

There are too much criticism and aggression on the size, scope and methods of government and bureaucracy in the 1980s and 1990s. At the same time, many hopes and demands were made from this system. In addition, the world's most prominent critics of the government or the public sector were the head of government. For example, Margaret Thatcher ruled the United Kingdom in 1979 and Ronald Reagan ruled the United States in 1980. They were the ones who were the most criticized for their administrative actions. The most frequently criticized topics are: 
  • The impact on the state along with the large size of the government 
  • Expansion of scope of government and its impact
  • The traditional procedures of the government and the bureaucracy. 

2. Emerging Economic Theories

Some principles were established financially. The government becomes the ultimate obstacle to national economic growth, prosperity, progress and independence. Only a limited government can work for the welfare of the people and the market system was much better than the bureaucracy. With this belief, the new public management has been directed for governance based on the famous principles related to the economic sector like Public Choice Theory and Principle Agent Theory. 

3. Globalization and Competitiveness

The rapid development in the private sector through globalization and economic liberalization have made compulsion to transform public administration into a New Public Management in terms of capacity building, making it competitive and people-oriented in the administrative sector. The public sector must be as efficient, competitive and effective as the private sector for the good economy. The efficient operation of the government sector can also make the private sector more effective. These two are interdependent with each other. Similarly, due to expansion of the functional role of the government, the development of new public management concept had taken place. 

Features of New Public Management (NPM)
  1. Fast and Quick Government: NPM replaces the large and multi-purpose bureaucracy with a fast and quick government.
  2. Achievement and Results Oriented: NPM is a management system that emphasizes achievement and results rather than process.
  3. Under NPM, a mechanism based on market economy is promoted for the flow of services or availability of goods by the public sector.
  4. Cooperation between public sector and private sector is an important feature of NPM. Emphasis is placed on the government to play a coordinating and facilitating role by making the private sector more active.
  5. There is maximum use of information technology to make the public sector management effective.
  6. The development of NPM has changed the values of public sector. It emphasizes institutional economy, efficiency and effectiveness.
  7. NPM guarantees the right of consumers to make their own choice while using goods and services.
  8. NPM ensures personal and institutional accountability.
  9. NPM provides flexibility as per the needs of public sector management. 

Limitations of New Public Management (NPM)
  • Repetition of traditional principles
  • Limitations of public choice theory
  • Problems of ethics and accountability
  • The problem of politicization
  • Difficulty in applying market principles 

Uses and Practices of New Public Management (NPM)
  • Its use varies from country to country.
  • The use of NPM is very low in Japan.
  • Partial use in China.
  • Relations between Japan and China have a hierarchy-based strong culture, whether official or personal.
  • Due to differ from policy execution, it is partially used in Australia.
  • However, the use of NPM is increasing with the modern global change. 

What should be done to align the administration of Nepal with the concept of NPM?
  • Clarify the areas of work to be done by the government.
  • Arrangements will be made to receive public services from the lower unit.
  • Make the administration small, efficient and empowered.
  • Make development programs based on program budget.
  • Control unnecessary and distribution oriented expenditure.
  • Provide ICT based online services.
  • Provide business related training to the service providers.
  • Increase the physical, technical and economic capacity institutionally.
  • Make employees to study and research new topics.
  • Effectiveness in administrative work will be increased by involving the private sector as a partner in good and achievable work.
  • Follow the best practices around the world.
  • Implement performance based incentive system.
  • Increase the participation of citizens in service delivery and development work.
  • Commercialize the bureaucracy instead of politicizing it.
  • NPM is a powerful means of connecting the government, the private sector and the general public. It is effective in providing services through it. 

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Culture and Process of Change (Organizational Change)

Creating Culture for Change

According to some OB (Organization Behavior) scholars, a culture for the change should be created. Culture for the change can be created with the help of following two approaches:

1. Stimulating a Culture of Innovation 

An innovation is a new idea that applies in initiating or improving a product, process or service. Although there is no guaranteed formula, certain characteristics surface repeat when researchers study innovative organizations. These can be grouped as structural, cultural and human resources categories. Change agents should consider introducing these characteristics into their organization to create an innovative climate. 

2. Creating a Learning Organization 

Creating a learning organization is another approach that is used to facilitate or develop climate for the organizational change. Learning organization is an organization that has developed the continuous capacity to adopt the change. All organizations learn for their sustained existence in a competitive business environment. A learning organization has following characteristics on the basis in which climate for the organizational change can be created: 
  • People openly communicate with each other (across vertical and horizontal boundaries) without fear of criticism or punishment.
  • People sublimate their personal self-interest and fragmented departmental interests to work together to achieve the organization's shared vision.
  • People discard their old ways of thinking and the standard routines they use for solving problems or doing their jobs.
  • There exists a shared vision that everyone agrees on.
  • Members think of all organizational process, activities, functions and interactions with the environment as part of a system of interrelationship.

Process or Steps of Change 

Organization must maintain a viable relationship with a changing environment. To achieve long term viability, an organization must turn out good performance by managing changes in the environment intelligently. Modern organizations are learning to cope with changes. They are beginning to realize the importance of managing change in a planned way. Generally speaking, management of change involves a series of steps which is shown in the following figure.
process of change
1. Recognition of the Forces Demanding Change 

The first step in the management of change is the recognition of forces necessitating change urgently or over a period of time. Forces may be internal or external. External changes include changing technological levels, changing market situations, changing products, changing consumer tastes and preferences etc. Internal forces comprise launch of a new product mix, erection of a separate departmental unit, etc. All forces certainly do not demand change. At least some require careful attention from management. The concerned manager should find out the discrepancy between what is and what should be. He should also find out the real forces demanding change. 

2. Identifying the Need for Change 

There are many forces, many demands for change but all changes may not be important and possible. Therefore, management must try to analyze the reasons of demand for change accurately. In this connection, the help of external consultant or unconnected internal staff may be sought for objective analysis of the causes demanding change. In any way, management must come to know the need for change and its true causes. 

3. Diagnosis of the Problem 

Diagnosis leads to locating the specific problem areas and identifying of the source of problem/s. It also enables a manager to know which activities need further improvement and systematization. A manager may use various diagnostic techniques such as interviews, questionnaires, present observations, etc. Diagnosis helps the change agent to see what changes are needed in the structure, system or in people. Actually, the initial diagnostic focus of a manager is on the organizations variables rather than on the psychology of individuals. 

4. Planning the Change 

Change can be made from one of (or all of, or some of) the four ways – change in structure, change in task, change in people, change in technology. A change agent has to consider the following points during the planning phase: 
  • He should be in a position to convince the members of the benefits of payoffs from change and also alerts them to the negative consequences and adverse effects in the absence of change.
  • He should select appropriate strategy - whether to change structure or people or technology or task. Normally all the changes include the change in behavior of people.
  • He should try to involve the subordinates in decision-making.
  • He should enlighten the need for change to the organizations participants.

5. Implementation of Change

The next step in the process of change is to implement the change plan successfully. While implementing change, the change agent encounters resistance from members of organization. Research supports the view that creating and implementing change is more difficult than planning the change. In addition to the problem of resistance, manager also confronts the problem of control. Change disrupts normal course of events and during change, it is quite likely that organizations lose control and many activities easily. 

6. Feedback

To ensure smooth implementation of change in the given direction, it is necessary to make review and evaluation of progress made regarding implementation of change. Without proper feedback, management of change is rendered incomplete and useless. A manager or change agent must compare the standards present during the pre-change period with actual performance after implementing the change and ensure whether the change has been fruitful or wasteful.

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Comparative Public Administration (CPA)

Comparative Public Administration is the theory of public administration applied to diverse culture and national settings and the body of factual data, by which it can be examined and tested. Comparative Administrative Group (CAG) was created in 1960 with the objectives of increasing the volume of research, improving teaching materials and stimulating the formulation and implementation of effective public policies.

It stresses the comparative analysis of system of public administration. Similarly, it also emphasizes on comparison as a method of study to better describe and evaluate the different administrative system of various nations with diverse ecological settings.

Factors of Comparative Public Administration (CPA) 

  • Revisionist movement in comparative politics 
  • The emergence of newly independent nations
  • Extension of American foreign aid program to third world countries
  • Exposure of the visiting American Administrative team to the diverse administrative system

Definitions of CPA 

  • At macro level
Comparative Public Administration is concerned with public administration in all countries. 

  • At micro level
Comparative Public Administration deals with comparing and contrasting different administrative agencies, jurisdiction, technique and administrators in a single nation. It may also take into consideration the description and analysis of societies widely in time from that under immediate consideration. 

According to Robert Jackson, "CPA can be defined as that facet of the study of Public Administration which is concerned with making rigorous cross-cultural comparisons of the structures and processes involved in activity of administering public affairs." 

According to Riggs, CPA is characterized by the following three trends.
  • A shift from normative to empirical studies.
  • A shift from Idiographic (concentrates on area studies and case studies) to nomothetic (seeks generalizations, laws, hypothesis that assert regularities of behavior, correlations between variables) studies
  • A shift in the focus from non-ecological (administrative system as abstract entities to be examined apart from environmental influence) to ecological studies.

Purposes of CPA 

  • to learn the distinctive features of a particular system of systems.
  • to explain the factors responsible for the differences in bureaucratic behavior.
  • to understand the strategies of administrative reform. 

Significance of CPA 

  • Cross-cultural and cross-national
  • It made to understand diverse administrative system in the world.
  • It helps to explain differences in the behavior of bureaucracies in different countries and made easy to generalize.
  • It is helpful to identify the various cultural, political and social factors that are involved in success or failure of administrative program in a country.
  • It is empirical. Therefore, it is helpful to identify bottleneck and suggest solutions.
  • It also identify whether the administrative practices in one country are applicable to other countries. 

Criticism of CPA 

  • American bias
  • Shifting own better values and norm by others
  • Indigenous vs Exogenous alternatives
  • Appointment of foreign consultants

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