Public Relation in Marketing for Maintaining Image or Reputation of the Company

Meaning of Public Relation

The institutional advertisement done for maintaining image or reputation of the company is called public relation. Public relation is an important tool for sales promotion. In order to maintain image of the company, different promotional programs are conducted. Such programs can have positive effect on target group or potential customers.
This communicates true information to customers, distributors, employees, local communities, suppliers etc. about the company and its programs through different media.
According to Prof. William J. Stanton, "Public relation is a management tool designed to favorably influence attitude towards an organization, it s products and its policy."
This definition makes it clear that public relation creates an environment to understand the company's programs, policy and strategy positively. Such views, expression or attitudes may come out through books, writings, press or house publication.

Generally, the task of presenting positive information or news about organization is public relation. It tries to make wide publicity about products by seeking sponsors. Besides this, public relation establishes good understanding between organization and people. Similarly, it provides true information, suggestion, advice etc. about the issue of public concern and position of the company. So, public relation is very important.

Nature of Public Relation

In this modern age, public relation is very important task of marketing. It is used for the bright future of a business organization. It creates positive environment/atmosphere for conducting business. It also maintains good understanding between customers and company. It has its own nature and forms which are mentioned as follows:

1. Press relation

News and information about the organization are disseminated through press media. Press media publish positive aspects of the company. While giving true and factual description of the company, the company gives emphasis on its objective, philosophy, policy and programs. Here press media means, specially, booklets, pamphlets, reports, literary writings, magazines etc. The main role of articles is also to point out the form of public relation. Similarly, both the house and outside publication can strengthen public relation.

2. Public service relation

Publicity about company's activities can be made through different sponsors. This can establish public relation without cost or with little cost. Similarly, any organization may help to disseminate information to promote understanding. The tactical policy of influencing parliament, government or rules and regulations, legal provision and helps in promoting them also serve public relation. It helps to heighten the image of the company. Counseling, suggestion, advice of any party or group may greatly help management. Similarly, raising voice for the interest of public and related subjects also helps management. Such nature appears in the public relation. They also become beneficial to the company.

Objectives of Public Relation

Public relation/contact plays an important role in creating positive image of the company. This task gives effective confidence to the local community, customers, employees, stockholders and government. Such creative activities need some objectives which are mentioned as follows:

1. Awareness

Public relation provides sufficient information and news about any company and its products. It also provides sufficient information about the company's leadership and its role. This makes concerned sides aware. So, marketing expert should determine awareness as its first objective.

2. Established Credibility

Various information and news about the company and its products are provided through different media such as newspapers, magazines etc. The editorial columns provide real position of the company. This gives confidence to the concerned sides of the company and products.

3. Creation of favorable/positive image

Public relation creates positive image of the company. This also encourages the manpower and dealers engaged in selling. They feel proud thinking, "We are involved in dealing in quality goods of reputed company." This encourages the employees to discharge their duty successfully and play important roles to maintain good image of the company.

4. Reduction of promotion cost

Leaders, opinion, researchers and publisher carry out informative articles about the company. This costs much lesser cost than the cost for advertisement. The saved promotion cost can be used in other works. So, the objective of public relations is to reduce/minimize the promotion cost.

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Publicity: Meaning, Objectives and Types of Publicity in Marketing

Meaning of Publicity

The other important element/factor of promotion is publicity. This can be known as public relation. In order to achieve any organizational goal/objective, social organizations, persons, group, government bodies, organizations, offices, banks, and other financial organizations can play important role. The task of publicizing/propagating the policy, programs, strategy,
products etc. by any business organization is called publicity. Budget arrangement is not necessary for such publicity. Publicity of goods can be made through press conference, speech, newspapers etc.

Publicity of the goods or services intended to sell also influences social, cultural, political, intellectual sectors besides business sector. So, objective of marketing, selection of the message and its implementation aspect should be seriously considered. Speaking about the product at any public forum or gathering can leave positive effect. So, description of goods or services should be based on logic and true data. Real publicity becomes meaningful only after mentioning important matter.

The meaning of publicity becomes clearer from the definition made by different experts and writers of marketing as follows:
According to Prof. William J. Stanton, "Publicity is nay communication about an organization, its products, or policies through the media that is not paid for by the organization."
According to Prof. Philip Kotler, "Publicity is the activity to promote a company or its products by planning news about it is the media not paid for by the sponsor."
Publicity is made not through organization but through outside sectors. The organization does not have to bear its expenses. News about the organization and its products and prices are disseminated through person, group, customers, consumer association, government bodies/organizations etc. After the information has been communicated, the consumers become confident about the product. So, this method becomes more effective than advertisement. The organization can play great role to encourage publicity. Company/firm can organize inauguration program by inviting celebrated/famous personalities, etc. for publicity. The company may also organize annual program inviting ministers each year. A company can make publicity and propagation about the organization and its products through such different programs and activities.

Objectives of Publicity

Publicity is supposed as the important element of promotion mix. It is made through different media without expenses. The objective of publicity can be mentioned as follows:

1. Announce new product

New product should be publicized much as soon as possible. Publicity can be used to bring the new goods in market. Press media provide special column to announce the new product. For instance, the Kantipur Newspaper has allocated columns for commerce and finance, advertisement, features etc. Such matters are entertained in proper place according to the nature of the advertisement and information. Company or firm company can publish notices, information, messages about features, quality, development of new product, services, price utility etc. of the products. Such publicity draws attention of the customers towards new products.

2. Announce new policy

Changed and new policies also can be announced through media. The organization/firm may adopt a new policy on allowance, or dividend distribution, or revise or improve the old policy. Information about such things should be given to all the concerned parties and people. If such information is communicated through publication/media, it gains popularity, and new policy is announced to make the people know about the new products.

3. Announce technical development

Every business organization may develop new technology and make experimental practices. If such development has been made, they should be publicized. Such publicity makes the people/customers know that the organization is able to develop new technology. Such communication and messages increase popularity and peoples' trust towards the organization.

4. Report the performance

Every business organization needs to give information to its shareholders and concerned parties about its performance. Such information can be communicated in the form of reports different media. For this purpose, proper media can be selected. Generally, this type of publicity is made by organizing annual general meeting at which report about the present condition, future program, plan, financial position, etc. of the organization is presented.

5. Counter the negative publicity

Competitors may involve in every market. They may propagate against the organization and its products. So, such negative propagation should be immediately refuted countered. While refuting or countering such propagation, the organization should publish financial position, transaction, sales plan, etc. For this proper media should be selected. Special articles/features also can be published through effective media and press conference, pamphlets distribution etc. program may be organized for such purpose. Mass communication media also can be used for such purpose. It makes the customers' confusion clear about the organization and its products.

Types of publicity

There are different styles of publicity. Among them news release, feature articles, press conference and publication are mostly practiced. They are mentioned as follows:

1. News release

News can be released through different media. Generally, much practiced media are radio, television, newspapers, magazines etc. Message about goods or services can be publicized. Specially, messages about policies and programs of the organization, features, quality product development, technical aspects etc. of the products can be disseminated through these media. The most suitable as well as popular media is press. Photograph publication adds more attractiveness.

2. Feature/articles

The second important method for publicity is publication of feature/articles. In such feature/articles the objective/mission of the organization, its policy, programs, research reports, used technology, progress report etc. are described. Such feature article is written specially by an experienced person working in the organization. This feature article is published through proper media. As details of the organization, products, features etc. are included in feature article, it becomes longer and descriptive than news publication. It also becomes reliable and dependable.

3. Press conference

Press conference is organized to say some important things to press media. Organization and its products, policy, program, strategy can be advertised through press conference. The media men are invited and clear information is given to them about subject wanted to publicize. Answers should be given to the questionnaire asked by the media men. Besides, the subject intended to publish is also distributed to them. In this way, the information of the company is disseminated at a time through different news reporters. As the newsmen involved in the conference positively present the news about the company and its products, press conference becomes effective medium for publicity.

4. Publication

Newspapers, brochure, news, letter etc. also can be used to propagate and communicate information about the organization and its products. This includes annual reports, bi-annual reports, audio visual materials etc. However, publication media should be used according to the nature of products, capacity and suitability. Media should be without cost. This method can be used in service oriented program.

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Methods of Sales Promotion, Trade Promotion, Consumer's Promotion

Methods of sale promotion create demand and increase sale volume of goods. There are various methods of sales promotion. The important methods can be divided into three classes for easy study as follows:

1. Consumers' Promotion Method

While selling or distributing any product of any company, first priority should be given to the interest and satisfaction of the customers. The producer should think the consumers as the monarch of the market. They also should be stimulated to buy goods or services. Success can be achieved only if they are attracted. To attract the attention of the consumers, the following methods should be applied:

a) Free sample

Newly introduced products can be given as gift to the consumers when they come to buy any goods. Similarly, if the customers buy certain amount of product, certain amount/units of new products can be given as gift. New products can also be distributed to the customers free of price through post, shop, or any other means keeping with other goods. In order to bring new products in market, the customers can be distributed even if the customers do not buy any. Although costly, this method becomes very effective for sales promotion.

b) Coupon

Any type of evidence can be provided to the customers who buy goods from the seller. It is called coupon. If the customers go to the same shop to buy goods in nature, the seller may give any kind of gift or discount. Trade mark also can work as coupon. Such type of coupon becomes more effective for established products in market. This coupon can be kept into packets of products. It also can be distributed while the customers are buying goods. This method encourages the customers to make repeated purchase order.

Related Topic:

Meaning of Sales Promotion

c) Premium or gifts

Giving gift or selling goods at discount price is called premium or gift method. This increases sales volume. Giving steel cups, glasses and spoons for buying Horlicks, Boost, giving glasses for buying beer, giving polish for buying shoes etc. are the some of the examples of this method.

d) Price-off/discount

Sometimes or in certain season, the target customers can be attracted by announcing price off / discount in market price. This kind of discount / price off should be advertised through effective media. Discount of price in goods on the occasion of Vijaya Dashami, Tihar / Deepawali, etc. are the examples of price off or discount.

e) Consumers' contest

Consumers can be drawn in contest by giving questions to the customers through any national or local newspaper and asking them to send correct answers of the questions. The customers should win the contest applying their creativity and intelligence. In this way, the first, second and third position holders can be distributed price free gifts, free travel coupon, hotel facility etc. On the other hand, lottery can be distributed to the customers buying certain amount of goods. The lotteries are made public each month and the winners are distributed prizes. This is called consumer contest method. This method becomes effective in sales promotion.

f) Decoration and display

Consumers are attracted by displaying or decorating or showing goods to them at the places where they gather. Short introduction or explanation of the products also is given to the customers at systematically held display or exhibitions. On such occasion, products may be distributed free of price from which the customers know about the quality, utility, features etc. of the goods. This method stimulates the customers to buy goods as soon as possible.

2. Trade Promotion Method

The trade promotion method is called intermediary promotion method. For increasing sale volume the channel members such as wholesalers, retailers, dealers etc. should be encouraged. The following methods can be used for trade promotion.

a) Free goods

Goods can be distributed free of price if the customers buy goods in certain quantity within certain time. This method gives additional encouragement to wholesalers, retailers, traveling sellers to buy goods. It also encourages intermediaries/middlemen to keep more inventories.

b) Allowance

The middlemen or intermediaries who sell goods in more than determined quantity can be encouraged by giving allowances. Similarly, cash allowance, or facilities are provided for advertising, decorating and conducting different promotional activities. This facility motivates intermediaries/middlemen to deal/sell goods. This is supposed as strong method of trade promotion.

c) Gifts

Immediately after buying any goods/product, gift is given to the buyer or intermediary. Even by giving small gifts, the middlemen can be encouraged to sell or deal in goods. Diary, calendar, ball-pen, wall-clock, key-ring, lighter, glass, cup, T-shirt, astray etc. are the examples of such small gift. This also increases sales quantity.

d) Price-off/reduction

Price off every product / goods is fixed in market price list. But price may be deducted from the list temporarily to encourage the middlemen to buy goods. Generally, this method becomes suitable in unfavorable season.

e) Credit facility

Regular and sincere middlemen can be provided credit facility. Such facility motivates them to buy goods. This also plays an important role in bringing/introducing new products in market. Because of credit facility, each middleman tries to increase inventories.

3. Sales for Promotion Method

Every company appoints representatives or sellers in order to make selling effective. Sales volume can also be increased by encouraging or motivating them. The company can get success in increasing sales and earning more profit. Proper arrangement of incentive should be made to create pleasant and suitable environment for motivating employees to work sincerely. They can be mentioned in short as follows:

a) Bonus and commission

Sellers can be given commission on the basis of sales quantity / volume. The seller, who can sell more quantity or volume than others, gets cash commission. Similarly, if any seller sells more volume than a certain limit, additional amount can be given as reward or bonus or commission. This increases interest of the sellers to sell more quantity of goods for getting more bonus or commission.

b) Sales contest

The sellers should be given encouragement or motivation for selling maximum quantity of goods. For this, sale contest should be organized or conducted. Clear criteria should be fixed to take part in such contest. The sellers who get success in such contest should be given attractive reward. Such program greatly contributes to sales promotion.

c) Gifts

Sales can be promoted by giving small goods of low prices to the sellers. Even if such goods may be cheap, they are useful in household use. Sale employees can be provided reward such as pen, watch, diary, calendar, lighter, T-shirt etc. to the sellers.

d) Promotional kits

Besides this, all the sellers can be given catalogue; brochure and other information about goods can be provided. The concerned sellers need to know about the goods intended to sell. Similarly, sellers should also be encouraged by displaying some models of goods.

e) Sales meeting

Sellers should be given clear information about company's policy and programs. For this, the top level management should call sales meeting. Through the same meeting, important information can be given to all the concerned sellers, by which they get motivated and encouraged to bear more responsibilities and perform works successfully.

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Sales Promotion: Short Term Encouragement / Stimulation for Attraction of Potential Customers

Meaning of Sales Promotion

Short term encouragement/stimulation used to create demand for the goods intended to sell is called sale promotion. This is an important element of promotion mix. In this competitive environment, its importance and popularity has been increasing daily. Sales promotion plays an important role to attract potential customers.

Various methods such as free sample distribution, rebet, coupon, price reduction, gift, decoration, fair, premium, display etc. can be used. Some producers keep cash prize into packets of goods.

The meaning of sale promotion can be clearly understood from the definitions given by experts and writers as follows:
According to Prof. William J. Stanton, "Sales promotion refers to demand stimulating device designed to supplement advertising and facilitate personal selling."


According to American Marketing Association, "Sales promotion refers to those marketing activities other than personal selling, advertising and publicity that stimulate consumer purchasing and dealer effectiveness such as display, show and exposition, demonstration, and various non-recurrent selling efforts not in the ordinary routine."


According to Prof. Philip Kotler, "Sales promotion consists of a diverse collection of incentive tools mostly short term, designed to stimulate quicker and/or greater purchase of particular product/services by customers or the trade."


The above mentioned definitions make it clear that various ways or methods that are devised to create demand for goods or services is called sales promotion. All the short term ways or methods devised for creating demand are called sales promotions. It works as the bridge to link advertisement and personal sale. Sales promotion also helps wholesalers and dealers.

Objectives of Sales Promotion

Generally, activities of sale promotion are conducted to expand/amplify sales. There may be various reasons and objectives for sale promotion. The main reasons or objectives are:

1. To attract new customers

Sales promotion activities should be conducted to attract attention of new customers. There are many methods to attract attention of the customers. Among them free sample distribution, coupon, price deduction, decoration are some of the examples. Such activities attract customers' attention. They may even give up / change the brand they have been using and get stimulated / encouraged to choose other new brand goods.

2. To introduce new product

The second objective of sales promotion is to introduce or present new products to the market. Bringing new product in market is very challenging and difficult task. It becomes difficult to sell new products in markets only using advertisement, personal sale and publicity or propagation. So, effective activities should be conducted for sales promotion. Sample display, presentation, trade fair etc. should be held to introduce or bring new product in the market. If new products are brought in market, they can face competition to some extent.

3. To encourage greater purchase volume

Sales promotion activities should be able to increase sales volume. The third objective of sales promotion is to increase sales volume and encourage customers to purchase more quantity. As different methods and tools of sales promotion encourage customers they become ready to buy and use greater volume of goods. Only when such situation is created, sales promotion becomes effective.

4. To educate the customers

Goods may remain in different conditions. Further improvement can be made by adding up some new features only after the products reach the maturity stage. This is called product modification. While adding new features to the products, quality and prices also are changed. So, customers should also be given full information about it. The same task is called educating the customers. Hence, sales promotion has the objective to educate customers.

5. To maintain selling stability

Sales quantity / volume remains changing for one or the other reasons. Sales may get fluctuation according to season or time. Greater volume of goods can be sold out in favorable season and less volume in unfavorable season. But, the sales volume can be maintained same even in unfavorable season by using tools of promotion, due to which selling stability remains for long. If stable sale is maintained, both the seller and buyer sides can get benefits.

6. To increase seller's inventories

The sales promotion activities increase the sales volume. When the sales volume increases, the wholesalers and retailers also should increase their inventories. Sellers become ready to increase inventories, provide facility, reduce price by purchasing goods even in unfavorable season. As a result, the inventories increase automatically.

7. To increase brand awareness

Sales promotion should make clear what products have been given brand name and their quality. In this way, to increase brand awareness in customers is also another important objective of sales promotion. Sample presentation, display, trade fair, etc. also greatly help to increase awareness.

8. To make better store display

Sales promotion inspires / encourages the retailers to make better display of goods in their shop. Nowadays, the producer of Lux soap, Bond Cigarette etc. have encouraged the retailers to display them in a beautiful way so that the customers may buy. They announce different prizes including cash, motorcycle and color television to customer.

9. To push new item

Sales promotion also encourages the sellers and channel members for sale of newly introduced products. So, they purchase new brand products from producers and urge or appeal the consumers to buy them.

10. To attract new channel members

Efficient new channel members are needed to sell any new product. Sales promotion encourages such new members to deal in such products. As a result, the market gets expanded and distribution management strengthened due to addition of new persons, channel-members or organizations. In this way, a competition among many channels members in selling products takes place through which the efficiency increases.

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Personal Selling Processes: Internal Selling Process and Travelling Personal Selling

In marketing, selling goods is very sensitive task. Success or failure of business depends on this task. So, an efficient seller should adopt certain process of selling goods. Indoor seller should complete the process such as drawing attention of the customers, politely welcoming them, asking or inquiring, showing goods, solving customers' doubts, helping them in selecting
goods, giving chances for selection, selling additional goods and seeing off with respect. Travelling or outdoor sellers should complete the process such as seeking customers, making pre-approaches, approach, displaying products, facing antagonism or complaint, objections and sell the products.

  • Internal Selling Process
    • Drawing attention
    • Welcome
    • Inquiry
    • Display of goods
    • Meeting objections
    • Selection of goods
    • Additional sale
    • Commendation of seeing off with praise
  • Traveling Personal Selling
    • Prospecting
    • Pre-approach
    • Approach
    • Presentation
    • Meeting objections
    • Closing the sale
    • Follow-up

1. Internal selling process

Internal selling should complete some process for selling goods. They can be mentioned as follows:

a) Drawing attention

The personal seller should, at first, attract potential buyers. Some important things should be done by the seller to attract the potential buyers' attention towards the shop. Such things are to arrange goods in order, in a decorative manner, keep shining board at right place, keep the shop clean, light colorful electric lights, keeping counter at convenient place etc. Only then the potential customers are attracted to the shop. In this way, there remains possibility of sale. These are the first stage tasks of internal seller.

b) Welcome

After the completion of the task of attracting attention, the customers enter the shop. The seller should welcome customers. They should be greeted respectfully. Then they should be offered sofa, chair or seat to sit. Tea, coffee, hot drinks should be offered according to season. In this way, they can be attracted.

c) Inquiry

At the third phase they should be inquired. The customers entered in the shop should be supposed as the emperor. So, they should be inquired with simple and easy manner to understand their wants. But the talks should not go beyond the context. If they are regular customers, they should be asked remembering their social dignity and respect.

d) Display of goods

After the priority has been understood, the seller should display / show the goods available in the shop. While displaying the goods, the seller should not reflect any irritation or bothers, but should be smiling, smart and helpful. The seller should explain the features, quality, utility using method, benefits etc. of the goods to the customers. Such information should be full, true and convincing. Only then the display becomes fruitful.

e) Meeting / facing objections

After hearing complete description of the goods, the seller may express objection. If they express doubt and raise problems towards any goods, the seller should solve such doubts and problems with cool mind and logics. Documents relating to the company, descriptions, guaranty-quality etc. should be proved to satisfy them. In this way, the customers can be convinced immediately.

f) Selection of goods

After the satisfactory answers have been given against the doubts, the customers can take buying decision. In this way, they select necessary goods with suitable price. The seller should help them in selecting good. They should not be given unnecessary pressure to buy any goods. They should be left free in choosing goods and given sufficient time to select and take rational buying decision.

g) Additional sale

When the customers become ready to pay the bill after selecting goods, the selling function completes. At that time, the seller should make efforts to sell additional goods. For example: the customers who buy television needs voltage controller, those who buy pen needs ink and copy, those who buy shoes need socks, those who buy suit may need tie. They also should be given information about such additional goods so that they are interested to buy such goods. Most of such efforts become successful to motivate them to buy additional goods.

h) Commendation and seeing off with praise

After taking price of the products sold, the customers should be seen off with respect. While seeing them off, the seller should praise or commend them for the selection, purchasing power, personality, behavior and identification of equality of goods. Such behavior of seller establishes close relation between sellers and customers. Such dealings of sellers also help in business success, and inspire customers to buy the goods repeatedly.

2. Travelling personal selling

Goods can be sold by roaming / traveling around different areas. Some processes should be completed to sell goods by a seller. The processes are as follows:

a) Prospecting

At first, the seller should seek prospective customers. The seller should find out the customers of the target market and investigate them who are to buy the goods. Prospective customers can be found out from past records, suppliers, reputed sellers, organizations etc. Besides, telephone, post office, newspapers, letters etc. also become helpful in finding out customers.

b) Pre-approach

After the completion of seeking out prospective customers, arrangement for pre-meeting them should be made. More information about the prospective buyers should be collected. Specially, the task of meeting prospective buyers, knowing about their need, interest and wants should be completed at this stage.

c) Approach

The seller meets the customers in order to sell goods or services according to their need. In this process, the seller establishes close relationship with them. In such meeting, the sellers should be efficient, flexible, polite and confidential.

d) Presentation

At this stage, the seller should show the goods, describe the quality, utility, benefits features, handling methods, etc. of the goods to the customers. While explaining, the sellers should be confidential and dependable.

e) Meeting objection

The prospective customers may raise different questions on the goods after presentation of the goods. Such questions and doubts should be clearly and orderly replied so that they are convinced also mention about the company, its sales records, sales quantity etc. After they are answered clearly presenting data, objections can be carefully met.

f) Closing the sale

After the seller gives satisfactory answers to the questions of the buyers, they are satisfied. Then buying order is received. Arrangement for sale according to the order should be made. At this stage, conditions of sale, after sale services, warranty, guaranty conditions etc. are determined. Then the buyer should be praised for selecting quality goods.

g) Follow-up

After the goods have been sold, follow up should be done about the goods. The seller should observe whether the goods have been correctly used or not. Along with this, the goods should be repaired, exchanged, or provide free service, if needed, according to the pre-set condition. This helps to keep continuity of selling the goods and the relationship between seller and buyer remains always good, renewed and warm.

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Personal Selling: Types, Importance and Objectives of Personal Selling

Personal Selling

Personal selling is very important part of promotion mix. It is the eldest media of sales promotion. Although being old, this is the most popular media for sales promotion. So, all the organizations mostly use this media for sales promotion. Personal selling is, however, costlier than other factors of promotion mix. 
The task of convincing and persuading customers to buy products through personal contacting or face to face talks is called personal selling. In other words, the task of having direct contact and talks with the customers and encouraging them, assuring, giving confidence, etc. to buy product is personal selling.

The customers themselves may also come to the sales centers. Just the opposite, the seller may go to the customers' houses or offices. Demand should be created at the meeting / talks with the customers. The seller should also be able to convince the customers. As there takes place a dialogue between seller and customers, wrong concept of them towards the company / firm, if any, should be cleared off their mind. Besides, face to face talks between possible buyers, telephone talks, fax, e-mail, Internet etc. also become effective media in personal selling.

To be much clearer about personal selling, definitions of different writers and experts have been given as follows:
Prof. William J. Stanton has defined personal selling as, "Personal selling is the personal communication of information to persuade a prospective customers to buy a service or idea."


American Marketing Association has defined it as, "Personal selling is an oral presentation in a conservative with one or more prospective customers for the purpose of making sales."


Prof. Philip Kotler has defined personal selling as, "Personal selling is face to face interaction with one or more prospective purchasers for the purpose of making presentation, answering questions, and procuring orders."


The above mentioned definitions also make it clear that personal selling is the process of face to face talks and of persuading the customers to buy products, and as a result, receiving / procuring purchase order from prospective buyers. Personal selling is compulsory for the heavy machines and technical equipment including special products. In personal selling, the seller makes customers know about quality, utility, price, features etc. of the product. Similarly, the personal seller quenches the curiosity of the customers by giving logical and convincing answers to their questions. So, the need of personal selling is felt every time. In short, personal selling should be understood as the subject endowed with the following qualities and features.

1. Persuasion

In personal selling, the prospective customers are reassured. Personal seller stimulates the prospective customers to buy products.

2. Personal communication

Personal interactions may take place between customers and seller. Talks may also be held through telephone, fax, e-mail, Internet etc. Such exchange of information is called personal selling.

3. Selling process

Effective and goal seller should adopt certain process of selling goods. Indoor seller should complete the process such as drawing attention of the customers, politely welcoming, inquiring, presenting goods, solving customers' doubts, help them in selecting goods, giving chances for selection, selling additional goods and seeing off with respect. Outdoor sellers should complete the process such as prospecting, making pre-approach, and approach, display of product meeting objectives, close the sale and follow up about the goods or services.

Objectives of Personal Selling

Personal selling provides information to prospective customers about goods or services. In order to attract them towards ones' own goods or services, personal seller presents confidential as well as strong logics. Besides this, the personal seller gives convincing answers to the questions put forth by the customers and explains the quality, features, price, utility and importance of the goods to the prospective customers. Any curiosity, if expressed by the customers, is satisfactorily answered. The significance and objectives of personal selling are as follows:

1. Awareness of need

Personal sellers reach target markets for selling goods. They give detail information and explain clearly the feature, quality, price, utility, importance of the goods to the prospective customers and conduct different activities for persuading them to buy. Such activities, information and programs make customers feel need of the goods or services. As a result, they may take decision to buy the products / goods.

2. Solution of the problem

Seller reaches targeted markets, gives information to the prospective customers about the goods or services intended to sell. If necessary, product is also presented among them. After the presentation, the customers may raise problems about the goods. At that time the seller clearly, sincerely and convincingly gives answers with evidence about the way of solving the possible problems. For such activities, the sellers should present true and dependable records of the company. So, one of the main objectives of personal selling is to solve any problems if arise while using the products.

3. Persuading the customers

The targeted customers should be fully assured by the personal sale. The personal sellers should provide clear information about quality, features, price, utility, using methods etc. of the product to the customers. The possible customers should be converted to real customers from such information. So, personal selling aims to reassure all the customers about the product.

4. Two-way communication

The seller keeps direct contact with the customers of target market. In this way, the sellers and buyers may meet and have talks. In this way, while providing information, the sellers can also get some information about goods or services as a feedback. Two-way communication becomes possible between sellers and buyers through meeting, sales talks, sales display, public contact etc. This helps the company to form new market strategy. So, personal selling makes the two-way communication objective, which becomes beneficial to both sides.

Types of personal selling

Personal selling is very effective sale function. Such sale can also be done with different methods. It does not only make two-way communication about goods or services but also educates the customers. There are different types of sale function as mentioned below:

1. Indoor personal selling

The seller who sells goods or services living at certain place is called indoor seller. Such seller tries to sell his goods or services to different customers by establishing contact with them. Different types of customers enter the shop to buy various goods or different qualities. So, they should be impressed by attractive activities and they should make them buy the goods or services immediately. So, this function is very difficult and challenging. Special attention should be paid towards selling goods to the customers by identifying their needs and interest.

2. Outdoor personal selling

Identifying customers and by walking in different geographical regions and selling goods to them is called outdoor personal selling. Customers should be sought reaching several market segments. Such sellers should be clever, smiling, and smart and be able to establish relation with people. Besides, the seller should be able to make feel necessity of the goods, propagate new products and create demand of the goods. The customers should be able to get information about the quality, features, price, utility benefits etc. and procure purchase order and make arrangement for sale of goods. As such seller can have direct communication and contact with customers, any problem arisen should be promptly solved.

3. Sales representative

Big business forms or companies appoint their sales representatives to sell their products. Big firms / companies select clever sellers, who are experienced, educated and able to establish public relation efficient in business dealings, as their representatives. Such capable sales representatives can sell goods or services to different markets giving full satisfaction to the customers. Mostly manufacturers' sales representatives, wholesalers' sales representatives, retailers' sales representatives can be involve in selling. Such representatives are appointed to sell new goods, industrial goods and consumers' goods.

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Advertising Media and Selection of Advertising Medias

Advertising Medias

The tool used for disseminating information and message about goods or services is called advertising medium/media. Such tools/media carry sales messages to the customers. Effective media works as the bridge between producers and customers. Various medias can be used to make flow of information or messages. Every company may use the following media for disseminating their messages.

1. Newspapers

Newspapers provide information, ideas, attitude of organizations sponsors/advertisers to all the customers. Target customers get different materials such as refutation, criticisms, descriptions, analysis, etc. relating to various subjects through newspapers. Such news papers may be daily, weekly, monthly, bi-monthly or so on. The newspapers can be of local level, regional level, national or international levels. News, information, notices, messages, etc. are published in them. Such medias are called print medias. Most of the customers study such published materials.

2. Magazines

Magazines, bulletins, journals, business diary etc. are also important media for advertisement. Advertisement of goods or services can be disseminated through such media using different forms such as article, notice, poems, essays etc. Generally, they can be published in fortnightly, monthly, bi-monthly, etc. publications. In such papers, business, banking, agriculture, education, finance, insurance, transport, religion, culture, communication, advertisement etc. are mentioned which become very important for advertisement of any products.

3. Radio advertising

The subscribers / sponsors of advertisement may disseminate their advertisement of their products in the form of notice, information, description, etc. through radio. Generally, such radio advertising is made in the form of song, music, verse, short stories, etc. Such form of advertisement may be very popular among target customers or markets. Sports materials, consumer goods, household goods, minor equipment, health related goods etc. may be advertised in the form of notice or message. Such advertisement becomes very effective as the customers / audiences can hear even when they are busy working.

4. Film advertising

Entertaining and knowledge giving information / notices can be provided through film. As all the audiences hear, see and understand such advertisement, it becomes very effective and important. Advertisement with examples can be disseminated through cartoon strips, song, music, colorful slides, documentary films etc. The customers can remember the information or advertisement disseminated in such forms. So, firms are also one of the effective media for advertisement.

5. Television advertising

Nowadays, television advertisement has also become very popular among people. Advertisement of any product in form of colored pictures, scenes, main subject matter etc. can beautifully as well as attractively presented through this modern means of advertisement in television. So, all the customers can get opportunity to hear, see and understand the advertisement. They become clear about the quality, features, utility, price, using methods etc. of the products. Descriptive information and notices about household and consumer goods, construction materials, transport means, agricultural tools etc. are disseminated through such type of advertisement media.

6. Poster advertising

Posters can be pasted giving simple information about products. Posters may be prepared by printing or writing and can be pasted on walls, pillars etc. Such advertisement attracts the attention of many customers. The matters to be mentioned in posters should be short, attractive, complete and sweet. Such posters should be pasted mostly in stadium, cinema hall, super markets, bus stop, airport, education institution, port etc. so that the people / customers can get important information about the product.

7. Travelling display

Travelling and mobile display is also is one of the strong methods of advertisement. In this method, advertising materials are pasted, hung on buses, tempo, train, car, jeep, lorry, truck etc. to disseminate the messages or information. Such type of advertisement is done in the form of exhibition and poster. Different sized cards should be prepared according to the nature of product or services and capacity of company and should be pasted at different places. As such posters/cards are pasted on different means of transport, customers can easily see the information or messages. This travelling display method is very simple and cheap.

8. Bill board and hoarding board

Necessary information about goods or services are written on boards and are hung around supermarkets, crossroads, train and bus stations etc. to propagate them. Such advertisement can impress the customers. If such boards are hung at proper places, maximum number of customers can see and understand the message. Mostly, consumer goods, machineries and tools, means of transport, soaps, radio, televisions, sports' goods, etc. are advertised through these media. As this type of media repeatedly reminds the customers, this method is very important.

Selection of Advertising Media

Advertisement carries information and message to the customers of target markets at right time. For this, a proper medium is needed. If proper media is not selected, it cannot bring expected result. So, proper media for disseminating the company's message and information should be selected correctly. Only the proper media can provide necessary information to all the customers, readers, audience and observes. There are some important bases to be cared while selecting proper media for advertisement. They are as follows:

1. Nature of product

At first nature of product should be specially considered while selecting advertisement media. If the advertisement is not suitable to the nature of product, it becomes meaningless. Posers, newspapers, magazines etc. become suitable to use for advertisement of the products of local and small companies. The big companies should use national level media for advertisement. One type of media becomes suitable for the advertisement of perishable goods and other types of media become suitable for long lasting goods. So, right and suitable media should be selected according to the quality, features, utility, nature etc. of the goods. Only then advertisement can give effective result of advertisement.

2. Nature of market

Market area, size and nature also affect media selection. Message, information and description of goods or services become effective and interesting only through suitable media. In the national level market, print and electronic media become suitable and in local market external exhibition media become suitable. Geographical area, age group, income source, number of customers etc. also affect media selection. So, media should be selected only by considering the nature of market.

3. Advertising objective

Business firms advertise their products to achieve some important objectives. So, advertisement media should be selected considering the objectives of the company. If right media is selected, expected result can be achieved. For instance, if the objective is to sell new product, outdoor media may be used. On the other hand, if it is also to save company's reputation, direct media may be used. Os, main and auxiliary objectives should be considered while selecting advertisement media.

4. Nature of message

Nature of message also affects selection of media for advertisement. Message may be short, detail, important or less important. So message should be disseminated on the basis of the description and priority. Different media can be used according to the nature and subject of the advertisement. The media should be fixed only after deciding which types of customers or which group or community is intended to be given message or information about the product. So, media should be selected according to the nature of message and subject matter for advertisement.

5. Media cost

Suitable or proper media should be selected only after studying what cost is needed to use what types of media for advertisement. Reasonable and cost effective media should be used. As producers have to advertise various products and if proper and reasonable media is not used, advertisement cost becomes high and certain budget is finished in it. So, availability and budget source also should be considered and proper media cost be identified. So, proper media should be selected at reasonable cost.

6. Media Availability

Easy availability of media also should be considered for using them to advertise products or services. If there are many alternatives, the best media can be selected. But in the lack of different media, easy available one should be used. Availability of media also plays an important role. Sometimes, any media available at the time when needed needs to be compulsorily given responsibility for advertisement. However, in such condition there remains possibility to arise problems.

7. Competitors' selection

Sponsor/subscriber of advertisement, sometimes, should keep in mind the competitors' selection. If the media selected by the competitors' are stronger and more effective than selected by the company, advertisement is overshadowed. But sometimes, the same media selected by other competitors need to be accepted. Only then the customers' attention can be drawn. So, media selected by other sponsors/subscribers should be selected. Sometimes imitation also becomes helpful in achievement of company's objective.

8. Sales and distribution policy

Sales and distribution policy of a company also affect media selection. The advertisement and media should be suitable to the policy of the company. If advertisement media is selected which can be helpful to the company's policy and program, its effect becomes positive. So, if the distribution system is suitable and scientific, any media can be selected. So, the structure of distribution system also should be considered while selecting media.

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Advertising: Meaning, Objectives and Importance of Advertising

Meaning of Advertising

Advertising is done in order to provide meaningful information about products. Advertisement is an important factor of promotion mix. Government organizations, business organizations, persons, groups, service oriented organizations etc. use this. As every product or service needs advertisement, this age  
is also called the advertising age. Similarly, the business age of today is also the age of competition. Different substituting goods are found in markets. They keep on competing with one another. So, the main objective of producers is to attract the consumers' attention towards their products.

The task of providing all the necessary information to the consumers about the quality, features, price, utility and importance of goods or services through different means of advertisement such as radio, newspapers, magazines, television etc. is called advertising. Television, video, cinema etc. are audio-visual means of advertisement. Radio, newspapers etc. also can be used to advertise goods. Goods are advertised through suitable media according to their nature, condition, cost, time, availability etc.

Different experts and writers have defined advertising. Important ones are given as follows:

Prof. Philip Kotler has defined advertising as, "Advertising is paid form of non-personal presentation and promotion of ideas, goods or services by an identified sponsor."


Mason and Rath have defined it as, "Advertising is a salesmanship without a personal salesman."


The above mentioned definitions make it clear that giving information to customers about goods or services through press, audio-visual media is advertising. Non-personal presentation of goods or services by well-known sponsor paying certain fee is called advertisement. It plays an important role in promotion of goods or services. In comparison to other factors of promotion mix, advertisement is very popular and effective factor used in all sectors. Small or big, governmental or non-governmental, sole or non-personal/joint businesses all use advertisement for sales promotion of their goods or services. The features of good advertisement are as follows:

1. Non-personal

Advertisement is of purely non-personal nature. In this interaction, face to face or contact or talks between person to person does not take place.

2. Message

In advertisement, the main content is message. It motivates / inspires the customers to buy goods. The advertisement message may be in any form such as oral, written, or symbolic or codes.

3. Sponsored

Advertisement is sponsored by any person, organization, or group. The sponsor should pay certain amount of money for advertisement.

4. Objective

Advertisement is done to achieve certain objective. Without objective, no advertisement of any product or service can be done. Giving assurance, information, notice, message, or reminding etc. is the main objective of advertisement.

5. Cost

Different expenses are needed for advertisement. It is called advertisement expense. Development cost, production cost, media cost, administrative cost etc. are the main examples of cost.

Objectives of Advertising

Although advertising seems simple, it is very challenging and difficult task. It motivates / inspires target groups to buy goods or services by making flow of information. Advertisement has some important objectives, which are given as follows:

1. To inform about product and organization

Many objectives of advertisement can be determined. One of them is to give information to potential customers about goods or services and organization. Information can be given about brand, feature, utility, price importance etc. of the product. It may also be about the location of organization and warehouse. Some short information can be given through press, audio visual etc. considering the availability, cost, situation, nature of product etc. The main objective of advertisement is to give knowledge to potential customers about products and their reliability.

2. To persuade potential customers

The second main objective of advertisement is to reassure / persuade potential customers. The customers do not become ready to buy only getting information about goods or services. So, the customers should be persuaded and made confident towards goods or services. For this, it needs to give comparative information about price, utility, feature etc. of the product. Confidence brings changes in behavior, feeling, thinking, trend etc. of the potential customers. So, the customers get themselves motivated to buy the advertised goods or services. Hence, the main objective of persuading the potential customers is to investigate them to buy products or services at least for experiment or make them give priority to certain brand.

3. To remind customers

The third main objective of advertisement is to remind customers of goods or services. As different advertisements about different products and services can be seen or heard through various means, the customers feel difficult to remember every brand. Similarly, thousands of competing producers advertise their products to divert customers' attention towards their own products. So, customers should be reminded of goods or services through regular advertisement. While reminding them in this way, place of availability, quality, features, price, utility, benefits etc. should be clearly stated.

4. To increase the value of product

The objective of advertisement is also to increase the value of product. There are some advertisements which can increase the value of products and organization. Special advertisement program should be conducted in order to increase value and respect of the product. This sets indelible impression on them about the quality of the product and reliability of the organization.

5. To reassure customers

The fifth objective of advertisement is to reassure customers. They may express concern over their buying decision or feel uneasy. In such situation, if advertisement makes them clear about quality, feature, utility and reliability and importance of the product, they become confident if they are reassured. Such assurance makes them feel, "I am buying the best quality goods." This makes them more loyal to the product as well as to the organization.

6. To add other promotional tools

Helping to different promotional method is also another objective of advertisement. At first, advertisement helps to bring effectiveness in personal selling. Advertisement provides different information about product to the potential customers. So, it is not difficult to persuade the customers to buy goods or services by giving true information. As the customers can get prior information about goods or products through advertisement, they become ready to buy. Similarly, advertisement helps to bring effectiveness in sales promotion. Different methods need to be applied in sales promotion. Sales promotion can be made effective by advertising goods or products, for example, if coupons have been provided, exhibition has been held, discount has been provided, and the customers can be informed about such facilities / chances.

Importance of Advertising

The modern age is the age of advertisement. This task reflects different activities of marketing. It provides information, instruction and education / knowledge to all the customers of target market. So, importance of advertisement has become greater than before. To prove this, it becomes contextual to discuss on the following points:

1. Facilitates mass production

Effective advertisement makes flow of necessary information to the customers. Accordingly, the goods are distributed and sold. Such distribution and selling increase demand for product in different market segments. As a result, the company gets opportunity of mass production of the goods. Production of goods in mass quantity, per unit production cost becomes less, due to which per unit price does not increase and profit margin becomes more.

2. Educates the customers

Good advertisement provides true information to the customers about product or services. Along with this, which product is used for what and for what purpose is also clearly stated. Some products need care while handling / using. Such information is also provided by advertisement. Doing so, the customers get information and can decide which product is suitable for them and which unsuitable.

3. Introduction of new product

An effective advertisement makes the new products familiar to the customers. Short information about quality, features, price etc. of the product contains in it. After the flow of such information, the customers may take buying decision. Besides this, advertisement makes the customers feel necessity of the new product and draws their attention to it. So, the task of advertisement is equally important to give introduction of new product.

4. Information to the customers

Advertisement gives information to the customers about new products and its introduction in market. So, the customers make plan which product should be bought to maintain life standard. All the composition of the product manufacturing, involved elements, handling / using method, manufactured and expiry dates, information about the usability of the product etc. are also given. Quality of the product, price, utility, place of availability, etc. are also included in advertisement. As a result, the customers get clear information about the product. So, providing true information is other important function of advertisement.

5. Maintains the image of organization

Advertisement pays special attention to the brand of quality goods. After such goods have been advertised, the customers get them. When they have once used quality goods, they do not easily change the brand or do not buy goods of other brands. In this way, advertisement makes the customers loyal to the brand and maintains it. Customers demand for the goods of certain company only. It raises the dignity, respect and good image of the company. So, advertisement becomes important for maintaining image, reputation, dignity and respect of the organization.

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