Steps for scientific research process

  1. Sensing or realizing: Research is conducted to solve a problem. In our environment i.e. social, managerial, business, behavioral etc., there are many things which are not going on smoothly. Some problems affected then. So first it is necessary to observe the situation and sensing or realizing the problems.
  2. Problems identification: On observing carefully over something in the environment, we would find many problems which are affecting the environment. In this step, researcher try to identify what exactly are the problems in the situation. The factors associated with the problems are also identified. At the beginning of the process, the researcher must single out the problem he wants to study.
  3. Theoretical framework: This is the third step of the scientific method. In this step the researcher make an attempt to collect the information about the problem concerned. The associations between the variables of the problems are identified. On the basis of the above information, a theoretical framework is developed.
  4. Formulation of hypothesis: After developing the theoretical framework, it is necessary to develop a working hypothesis. Working hypothesis is tentative assumption made in order to draw out and test it’s logical or empirical consequences. In research hypothesis has a vital role, so it should be formulated with utter care. Hypothesis should be very specific and limited to the piece of research in hand because it has to be tested.
  5. Research design: In this step, the researcher selects the appropriate research design. The research design is the conceptual structure within which research would be conducted. The main purpose of selecting a research design is to provide for the collection of relevant evidence with minimal expenditure of time, effort and money. Selection of research design depends mainly upon the research purpose.
  6. Collection of data: In dealing with any problem it is necessary to collect adequate and appropriate data. There are several methods of collecting the data. Mainly there are two types of data: primary and secondary. Depending upon the nature of the problems either primary or secondary data are collected. Generally is most of the researches primary data are appropriate.
  7. Analysis of data: After the data have been collected, the researcher analyzes those data. Before analyze collected data recoded, edited and tabulated. By using various statistical measures the data are analyzed. After analyzing the data, the researcher’s next job is to test the hypothesis which he had formulated earlier. The hypothesis may be tested through the use of different statistical tests i.e. z-test, t-test etc. hypothesis testing will result in either accepting the hypothesis or in rejecting it.
  8. Generalization and interpretation: This is the final step of the scientific research process. If a hypothesis is tested, it may be possible for the researcher to arrive at generalizations. The real value of research lies in its ability to arrive at certain generalizations.

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