Motivation: Types and Processes of Motivation

As we have already written post about the topics on motivation. We are here today to write a post on types of Motivation and the processes of Motivation. If you want to get some concept and different characteristics and importance of Motivation, you can find in the following links:

As Motivation is the psychological process of creating willingness to work and co-operate for the achievement of organizational goal. It is an inner state that energizes, activates and directs behavior towards achieving organizational goals. So, motivation always helps the people to work effectively and efficiently to achieve the goal.

Types of Motivation

There are different types of motivational techniques that are used to motivate employees in the organization. Some of the motivational techniques are listed in following figure: 
Types of Motivation
1. Extrinsic Motivation

Extrinsic or external motivation is one which arises from external factors. It is related to job environment. It is the incentive or reward that a person receives after finishing his work. It includes higher wages, profit-sharing, fringe benefits and so on. Intrinsic motivators motivate some people more than extrinsic motivators. But in reality both are necessary. If wages, job security, fringe benefits are inadequate, it would be difficult to recruit and retain good personnel. Turnover, absenteeism and grievances will tend to be higher in the work place when management ignores extrinsic motivation. Therefore, a sound motivation system should provide both extrinsic and intrinsic motivations.

2. Intrinsic Motivation

Intrinsic or internal motivation comes from the satisfaction that arises while performing a job. It is an internal reward i.e. satisfaction which comes while a person is performing his job. Thus, it is a motivation that arises out of a job itself. It is an internal stimulus resulting from job content and not from job environment. Herzberg suggested for job enrichment in order to provide intrinsic motivation. Higher responsibility, opportunity for achievement and individual growth, praise social recognition, etc. are the basic sources of intrinsic motivation.

3. Positive Motivation

Positive motivation is the process of persuading the people to carry out the work by reward. In other words, it is the process of influencing people towards the work. In positive motivation, the people are given different incentives like promotion, reward, increase in payment etc. Positive motivation induces people to do work in the best possible manner and to improve their performance. In most cases, positive motivation greatly works in winning the heart of the employees to make the work done efficiently, significantly and effectively. Under this, better facilities and rewards are provided for their better performance. Such rewards and facilities may be financial and non financial. This approach of motivation is also called ‘Carrot Approach.’

4. Negative Motivation

Negative motivation is the process of forcing people to carry out the work not by reward but by threat or punishment. In negative motivation, different actions are taken against the employees if they don’t work in accordance with direction like disciplinary action, demotion, loss of job, etc. Negative motivation is required when people show negative attitude towards the work and organization. It creates a fear in their mind which will show a positive response towards their duties. Negative motivation aims at controlling the negative efforts of the work and seeks to create a sense of fear for the workers, which he has to suffer for lack of good performance. It is based on the concept that if a worker fails in achieving the desired results, he should be punished. This approach of motivation is also called ‘Hot Stove Approach’.

In fact, both positive and negative motivations are essential in an organization. But, the fact that the work done by heart is more fruitful than the work done forcefully. When a person feels himself to perform in a better way then, it creates enthusiasm and the result is more effective in comparison to the negatively motivated employees. However, both are required in accordance with the need of the organization.

5. Financial Motivation

Financial motivation is the pecuniary motivation and occurs from direct or indirect monetary benefits. Pay and allowance, incentive pay, gain sharing, profit-sharing plans, pension plans, health insurance plans, stock options etc. are the direct financial benefits.

6. Non-financial Motivation

It is one which is not associated with monetary rewards. In fact, non-financial motivation is psychic in nature. It comes from the satisfaction of higher-level needs i.e. social, esteem and self-actualization needs. Work environment, praise, recognition, promotions, more authority and responsibility etc. are the non-financial motivators.

Process of Motivation

The motivational process is the steps that people take to get motivated for the incredible results. If people are properly motivated, they can do the things amazingly. Like any other process, it takes a little work and foresight and planning. The motivational process determines what we want to be motivated to do or to accomplish. This is a specific goal in a very specific area of your life. The motivational process is not best for general motivation, but works best when we need to get motivated to do a specific task, or reach a specific goal. Similarly, it makes up the steps to get the determined goals, little by little.

1. Unsatisfied Needs and Motives

The motivation process starts from the unsatisfied needs. Human is motivated to satisfy needs. Unsatisfied needs cause tension within an individual. Therefore, to release from tension, one has to fulfill unsatisfied needs. Until and unless needs are satisfied, no work can be done satisfactorily.

2. Tension

The tension can be physical and psychological. An individual is not motivated until tension exist in his/her mind. Once need is created, it brings remarkable changes in the behavior of employee to accomplish the job.

3. Action

An individual engages in an action to satisfy needs and motives so as to reduce the level of stress. The best alternative is selected from among many alternatives which help to satisfy needs and motive.

4. Goal Achievement

Goals can be achieved through proper use or reward or punishment. Only motivated employees can help to achieve organizational goal in an anticipated manners.

5. Feedback

Feedback is the response regarding the outcome of motivation. The outcome can be positive or negative indicating how well the goal is accomplished. Once existing needs and motives are satisfied, it ultimately creates new unsatisfied needs and motives. Thus, it is an ongoing process.

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