Methods of Collecting Job Information
Collecting job analysis data usually involves a joint effort by an HR specialist, the worker, and the worker’s supervisor. The HR specialist (perhaps an HR manager, job analyst, or consultant) might observe and analyze the work being done and then develop a job description and specification. The supervisor and worker will also get involved, perhaps by filling out questionnaires listing the subordinate’s activities. The supervisor and worker may then review and verify the job analyst’s conclusions regarding the job’s activities and duties.
Basic Methods of Data Collection for Job Information
There are two principle methods of collecting job information primarily.
1. Observation: In this method, respondents are visually observed, regardless of whether they realize it or not. This method is more objective than the use of survey questions. In observation method, there is chance of influencing the respondents because of interaction. In some cases, this method may yield more information than could otherwise be obtained, because the methods are independent of respondents’ unwillingness or inability to respond. Individuals are usually reluctant to discuss personal habits of consumption (in the case of marketing research) and observation avoids this problem.
The personal or direct technique of observation is most commonly used. Mechanical recording devices are often used for this purpose. Observers may be explicitly instructed about what they are supposed to notice. Training and practice are necessary if desired detail is to be systematically noted and recorded. If bias cannot be completely eliminated through training, it may be necessary to use observers of various backgrounds to over each other’s blind spots.
2. Questioning: Using this technique, data can be collected more quickly and at a minimum cost because the research does not have to wait for the event in order to observe it. The method is quite versatile, because it can be used to explore virtually all types of marketing problems. They can be useful to learn about a consumer’s internal working such as motives and attitudes that are not observable.
There are three basic types of questioning.
- Personal Interview:
An interviewer must know the language of the interviewee. A great deal of personal and social interaction occurs in a personal interview. The appearance of the interviewer must be taken into account. The use of the personal interview should be restricted only to the individual interview but it may involve group as well. That may be a focus group.
- Telephone Interview: This technique poses a special challenge for international researchers. State-run telephone is usually associated with poor service and it is usually difficult to have a telephone survey, because everyone may not have telephone lines. Assuming that private telephones are available. There are several problems associated with a telephone interview. They may be difficulty in conversational skills. The habits may vary a lot: an interviewer may feel difficulty in getting the desired information over the telephone.
- The Mail Questionnaire: The mail questionnaire is a very popular survey method because of its low cost and high degree of standardization. One problem involves the lack of good mailing lists. People in most countries generally do not bother in reporting their new address, not even for the purpose of mail forwarding. As a result, a government’s list based on the censused report is out dated. Another problem is illiteracy. Lack of familiarity with the mailed survey question method should be given careful consideration. Because many people are not used to responding by mail. The cause may even be the poor mail system. Many postal workers are simply lazy careless.
Technique 1: Questionnaire: A formalized instrument for asking information directly from a respondent concerning behavior, demographic chart and level of knowledge and or attitudes, beliefs and feelings.
Technique 2: Attitude Scale: A formalized instrument for eliciting self-regrets of beliefs and feelings counseling objects.
Technique 3: Rating Scale: Require the respondent to place the object being rated at some point along a numerically ordered service of categories.
Technique 4: Composite Scale: To express a degree of belief concerning various attributes such that the attitude can be indeed from the pattern of responses.
Technique 5: Perceptual ways: Derive the components or chart on individual uses in comparing objects and provide a-ix score for and object on each chart.
Technique 6: Observation: This is the direct examination of behavior, the result of behavior or physiological changes.
Technique 7: Conjoint Analysis: Derive the value an individual assigns to various attributes of a product.
Technique 8: Projective Technique Interviews: Designed to gather information that respondents are either unable or unwilling to provide in response to direct questioning.
Technique 9: Draft Interview: Allow individuals to express their feeling without any fear of disapproval, dispute or advice from the interviewer.
The Values of Written Job Description in an OrganizationJob description is prepared on the basis of data collected through job analysis. Job description is a functional description of the contents what the job entails. It is a narration of the contents of a job. It is a description of the activities and duties to be performed in a job, the relationship of the job with other jobs, the equipment and tools involved, the nature of supervision, working conditions and hazards of the job and so on. All major categories of jobs need to be spelled out in clear and comprehensive manner to determine the qualifications and skills required to perform a job. Thus, job description differentiates on job from the other. In addition, job description is a written statement of what a job holder does, how it is done, and why it is done. The sample of job description is sown as below:
Job Title: Director of wage and salary Administration. Job Summary: Responsible for company wage and salary programs including job analysis job evaluation, wage surveys, and benefit administration.
Job Duties :1. Supervisor job analysis studies and approves final form of job description.
2. Develops executes and monitors job evaluation procedures in cooperation with operating management.
3. Acts as chairman of the company-wide job evolution committee.
4. Conducts periodic wage and salary surveys in the community and industry.
5. Administers the company’s supplementary benefit programme. Recommends changes in and additions to existing benefit.
6. supervises members of the wage and salary division
Working Conditions: Normal-working condition eight hours per day.