2. Interaction and communication between groups decreased. Because group members feel hostile toward members of rival groups, there is less desire for interaction with them. Moreover, decreased interaction makes it easier for each group to maintain its negative stereotype of the other.
3. There is a shift from problem-solving orientation toward other groups to win lose orientation. There various facts to this shift in orientation. First, there is a much clearer distinction drawn between the groups, resulting in a “We- they” rather than a “We- versus” – the problem orientation. Second, all exchange with the other groups are evaluated in terms of victory or defeat. Third, the groups tend to see the problem only from their own point of view, rather than in terms of the needs of both groups. Fourth, the parties emphasize the benefits of winning the conflict in the short run and tend to ignore the long-term consequences of the conflict for the relationship between the groups.
4. There is increased hostility toward the rival group. As a result of negative stereotyping, decreased communication between groups, and win lose orientation, increased hostility inevitably occur between rival groups. Members of the other group are seen as the enemy, and deserving of hostile attacks. Major types of inter-group conflict are follows:
- a) Functional conflict: Conflict that supports the goals of the groups and improve its performance.
- b) Dys-functional conflicts: Conflict that hinders group performance.
- c) Task conflict: Conflict based on interpersonal relationships.
- d) Process conflict: Conflicts over how work gets done.