Contributing Disciplines to Organizational Behavior (OB)

Organization behavior is an applied science that is built up on contribution from a number of behavioral science such as:

1. Psychology
The terms psychology comes from the Greek word ‘Psyche’ meaning soul or spirit. Psychology is the science that seeks to measure, explain and sometimes change the behavior of human beings. Modern psychology is almost universally defined as the science of behavior which is nearly identical with behavioral science, in general. Psychology has a great deal of influence on the field of organizational behavior. Psychology is concerned with individual behavior.

Psychology studies behavior of different people in various conditions such as normal, abnormal, social, industrial legal, childhood, adolescence, old age, etc. It also studies processes of human behavior, such as learning, motivation, perception, individual and group decision-making, pattern of influences change in organization, group process, satisfaction, communication, selection and training. 

It is a science, which describes the change of behavior of human and other animals. It is concerned with the more study of human behavior. The major contribution of psychology in the field of OB (Organizational Behavior) have been concerned are following:
    • Learning
    • Personality
    • Perception
    • Individual decision-making
    • Performance appraised
    • Attitude measurement
    • Employee selected
    • Work design
    • Motivation
    • Emotions
    • Work strain
    • Job satisfaction
2. Social Psychology
Social psychology is that part of psychology that integrates concepts from psychology and sociology. In other words, social psychology studies all aspects of social behavior and social thought – how people think about and interact with others. One of the areas receiving considerable attention from social psychology is change law to reduce its resistance and implement it successfully. Additionally, social psychology is useful in the areas of measuring and understanding changing attitudes; communication patterns; the ways in which group activities can satisfy individual needs and group decision making processes. It focuses on the influences of people on one another.

It is an area within psychology that blends concepts from psychology and sociology and that focuses on the influence of people on one another. The major contributions of social psychology to OB are as follows:
    • Behavior change
    • Attitude change
    • Communication
    • Group process
    • Group decision-making
3. Sociology
Sociology is the study of group behavior. It can be described as an academic discipline that utilizes the scientific method in accumulating knowledge about a person’s social behavior. In other words, it studies the behavior of the people in relation to their fellow human beings. Some of the areas within OB that have received valuable input from sociologist include group dynamics, organizational culture, formal organization theory and structure, organizational technology, bureaucracy, communication power, conflict and inter-group behavior. To the managerial practice, its contribution is mainly in the field of bureaucracy, role structures, social system theory, group dynamics, effect of industrialization on the social behavior etc.

It is the study of society, social institution and social relationship. The main contributions of sociology to the field of OB are as follows:
    • Group dynamics
    • Communication
    • Power
    • Conflict
    • Inter group behavior
    • Formal organizational theory
    • Organizational technology
    • Organizational change
    • Organizational culture
4. Anthropology
The term anthropology combines the Greek term ‘anthropo’ meaning man and the noun ending ‘logy’ meaning science. Thus, anthropology can be defined as the science of man. It is also known as ‘science of humanity’ which encompasses a broad range of studies including the evolutionary history of human beings and features of different societies, cultures and human groups. In other words, the field of anthropology studies the relationship between individuals and their environment. Groups of individual living together create a body of shared ideas that are called culture. Culture is embodies in the system of symbols shared by a group of people and is reflected in their language and beliefs. The culture of a civilization or the sub-culture of a defined group is transmitted by the stories and myths told by members of the group. These stories and myths help the groups to understand who they are and what things are important.

It is the study of society to learn human beings and their activities. The major contributions of Anthropology in the field of OB are as follows:
    • Comparative values
    • Comparative attitudes
    • Cross-culture analysis
    • Organization environment
    • Organization culture
5. Political Science
Political science is the branch of social science which deals with politics in its theory and practice, and the analysis of various political system and political behaviors. Political scientists study the behavior of individuals and groups within a political environment. Specific topics of concern to political scientists include conflict resolution, group coalition, allocation of power and how people manipulate power for individual self-interest. In other words, political science helps us to understand the dynamics of power and politics within organizations, since there is usually a hierarchical structure of differing levels of managers and subordinates.

It is the study of the behavior of individuals and group within or political environment. The main contribution of political science in the field of OB have been concerned with:
    • Conflict
    • Intra-organizational policies
    • Power
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