Technological Environment

The environment surroundings that influence projects is known as technical environment. Technology consists of skills, methods, systems and equipments. It includes inventions and innovations. It makes work more efficient.

Technology influences projects by bringing about changes in jobs, skills, life styles, products, production methods and processes. Automation, computerization, robotics, informatics, biotechnology, new materials and artificial intelligence have all influenced projects.

Factors in the technological environment consist of:
Factors in Technology Environment of Project
1. Level of Technology: The level of technology can be appropriate or sophisticated. It can be labor-based or capital-based. The level of technology influences projects.
  • Labor-based Technology: Human labor is mainly used for the operations.
  • Capital-based Technology: Machinery is mainly used for operations. Technology is represented by automation, computerization, robotization, etc. The technology can be high, intermediate or low.
2. Pace of Technology Change: Technology is a dynamic force. Its pace of change is accelerating. Projects should adapt t the changing technological forces.

3. Technology Transfer: Sources of technology can be within the organization, within the country or foreign countries. Technology transfer implies technology imported from technologically advanced foreign countries.
Technology transfer can be through:
  • Globalization: Global companies are the key sources of technology transfer in developing countries. The modality can be contracts, franchising, technical collaboration, joint ventures, subsidiary establishment.
  • Projects: Turn-key projects based on global bidding serve as a source of technology transfer.
  • Trade: This consists of sale of equipment or machines by the manufacturer.
  • Technical Assistance: Bilateral and multilateral donors under technical assistance provide international consultants who bring new technology with them.
  • Training and Publications: They provide opportunities to learn about new technology.
4. Research and Development (R & D): R & D is the essence of innovation. Expectations for improved technology are increasing. Customers expect projects for superior quality which are safe, comfortable and environment-friendly.

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