Career Planning and Succession Planning

Career planning is the process of selecting career goals and path to reached the goals. It is basically a planning process for future purpose. It can be done by all level of employee and it is an individual responsibility. HR (Human Resource) encourages career planning of employee through career education counseling.

Succession planning is generally done for top level and middle level managers. As for example, many people join in organization, all their aim are to become manager or CEO, but due to several reasons like retirement, resignation, death, people become unable to become manager, thus preparing some people for future manager is succession planning.
Career PlanningSuccession Planning
    Career planning is for all the employee from lower level to upper level.
    Career planning is a matching process between individual aspiration and organizational opportunities.
    Time frame for career planning has no limit. And it is guaranteed the development of career in every course of stages are needed.
    In career planning, plans and goals are developed all the employee.
    It considers individual employee.
    Time frame is unlimited.
    Succession planning is concerned for the higher-level executives only.
    Succession planning is a detail career path multiple back up group of manager in reserve to fill any position opening that might occur.
    Time frame is of 12-36 months. It is not guarantee.
    In succession planning, plans and goals are set for specific selected employee that succeeds for manager in future.
    It consider employee and the position.
    Time frame is limited.

Why one should plan career?

A career can be defined as all the jobs held by a person during his working life. It consists of a series of properly sequenced role experience leading to an increasing level of responsibility, status, power and rewards. Career is sequence of separate but related work activities that provide continuity, order and meaning in a person’s life.
Career, thus, represents and organized, well timed and positive move taken by a person across time and space. It must be noted that a person’s career is shaped by many factors e.g. education, experience, performance, parents, caste links and some occasional luck. Similarly, while some people like creative personnel and artists may deal independently with shaping their careers, there are others those employed by somebody do not have much scope for their own pursuits and, in turn, career.
 
Career planning is the process of selecting career goals and the paths to achieve individual and organizational goals. The steps involved in the process of career planning are as follows.
Process of Career Planning
  1. Individual Needs and Aspirations: The first step in career planning process is counting of individual needs and aspiration. What the individual is really seeking from the organization should be identified by the organization otherwise in lack of it, labour turnover may occur.
  2. Organizational Need and Opportunities: The next process in career planning is counting of organizational need and opportunity. What kind of manpower it is seeking and what opportunity for career development, it can provide to the employee should be identified.
  3. Personnel Counseling and Assignment: The organization should counsel to the employee or individual. In organization, there is HRM department. The HR staff’s duty is to counsel the individual. Counseling for new hires existing employee in the mid career and in the pre-retirement stage should be done. Counseling are of two types:
    1. Formal Counseling is performed by career development center, assessment center, workshop etc.
    2. Informal Counseling is performed by HRM staff in organization for those who wish to assess their ability and interest.
  4. Personal Planning and Career Information: Organization should make a detail inventory about the people working in the organization. The people working in the organization are currently in which career position of his career should be identified. The information of employees career position should be obtained and how they be advanced should be planned in organization.
  5. Individual Development Effort: Individual tries to develop themselves for their development. Organization should back up the individual, to develop individual. Organization can do it through different programmes like training, counseling etc.
  6. Formal Training and Development: Organization should provide training and development to develop employee career. But which individual need training should be identified and should make a match in between it.
If these are matched, employee can be placed on career path. So, every career planning process leads to the placement of employee in the career path.

With sound process, employee can be rightly placed on career path, through it employee proceed for career development.

Concept of Career Planning

In order to develop the organization, career planning is very much essential. Unless and until employees are developed, productivity, motivation and satisfaction can’t be increased. Career planning are important because consequences of career success and failure are linked with each individual self identity and satisfaction with career and life. Without
career planning, people do not like to work in organization. Individual first seek, whether there are an opportunity to grow job skill, techniques, to up grade position or not (career development or not). If he/she does not find this opportunity, he does not work there and jump to another organization where he gets his career aspiration.

Need for Career Planning in Organization
The need can be pointed out as follows:
  1. Select Career Goals: A career involves all the jobs that are held during one’s working life. Employee need to predetermine desired future positions they strive to reach as a path of career. Career planning is needed to select career goals.
  2. Select Career Path: Employees need to select career path to achieve career goals. Career path denotes sequential pattern of jobs during an employee’s career. Career planning is needed to decide appropriate career path.
  3. Motivate Employees for Career Development: Career planning forces employees to set career goals and work to achieve them. It is needed to motivate employees for career development through further education, training and other developmental activities.
  4. Meet Internal Staffing Needs: Career planning is needed to meet internal staffing needs of the organization. This provides the organization with a larger pool of qualified applicants. It is needed to implement human resource plan.
  5. Reduce Employee Turnover: Best employees have the greatest career mobility. An effective career planning is needed to retain such employees in the organization by reducing their turnover.
  6. Satisfy Employee Needs: Career planning is needed to satisfy the higher level needs of employees such as esteem and self-development needs leading to promotion, responsibility, achievement etc.
  7. Identify Training and Development Needs: Career planning is needed to identify training and development needs of employees. It is also needed for career development.
Purpose of Career Planning
Career planning plans and shapes the progression of individuals within an organization in accordance with assessments of organizational needs and the performance, potential and preferences of individual members of the enterprise.

Career planning serves following purpose:
Make or buy decision the organization needs to decide on the extent to which it makes or grows its own managers (a promotion from within policy): recruits or buys in deliberately from outside (bringing ‘fresh blood’ into the organization). This means adopting a policy that accepts a reasonable amount of wastage and even takes seep in good time to encourage people. Fairly gently to develop their career elsewhere if they are in danger of stagnating will have to buy in talent from outside because of future short falls in the availability of managers, as revealed by demand and supply forecasts.

Objectives of Career Planning
Career planning is done to fulfill the following three objectives
  1. To ensure that the organization’s needs for management succession are satisfied. 
  2. To provide men and women of promise with a sequence of training and experience that will equip them for whatever level of responsibility they have the ability to reach.
  3. To give individuals with potential the guidance and encouragement they need if they are to fulfill their potential and achieve a successful career either the organization in tune with their talents and aspirations.

Steps to Organize an Executive Development Programme

Like any learning programme, executive developments also involve a process consisting of certain steps. Though sequencing these various steps in a chronological order is difficult, behavioural scientists have tries to list and sequence them in six steps as shown in figure.
Executive Development Process
  1. Identifying Development Needs: Once the launching of an executive development programme (EDP) is decided, its implementation begins with identifying the developmental needs of the organization concern. For this, first of all, the present and future developmental needs for executive/ managers ascertained by identifying how many and what type of executives will be required in the organization at present and in future. This needs to be seen in the context of organizational as well as individual, i.e. manager needs. While organizational needs may be identified by making organizational analysis in terms of organization’s growth plan, strategies, competitive environment etc. 
  2. Appraisal of Present Managerial Talent: The second step is an appraisal of the present managerial talent for the organization. For this purpose, a qualitative assessment of the existing executives/ managers in the organization is made. Then, the performance of every executive is compared with the standard expected of him
  3. Inventory of Executive Manpower: Based on information gathered from human resource planning, an inventory is prepared to have complete information about each executive in each position. Information on the executive’s age, education, experience, health record, psychological test results, performance appraisal data, etc is collected and the same is maintained on cards and replacement tables. An analysis of such inventory shows the strengths and also discloses the deficiencies and weaknesses of the executives in certain functions relative to the future needs of the concern organization. From this executive inventory, we can begin the fourth step involved in the executive development process.
  4. Developing Development Programme: Having delineated strengths and weaknesses of each executive, the development programmes are tailored to fill in the deficiencies of executives. Such tailor made programmes of development focus on individual needs such as skill development, changing attitudes, and knowledge acquisition.
  5. Conducting Development Programmes: At this stage, the manager actually participates in development programmes. It is worth mentioning that no single development programme can be adequate for all managers. The reason is that each manager has a unique set of physical, intellectual and emotional characteristics. As such, there can be different development programmes to uniquely suit to the needs of an executive/ manager. These development programmes may be on-the-job programmes organized either by the organization itself or by some outside agencies.
  6. Evaluating Developing Programmes: Just as with employee training programme, executive development programme is evaluated to see changes in behavior and executive performance. Evaluation of programme enables to appraise programme’s effective, highlight its weakness and aids to determine whether the development should be continued or how it can be improved.

Meaning of Management Development

Management development aims to ensure that the organization has the effective managers it requires to meet its present and future need. In another words, management development is a systematic process of improving managerial effectiveness by imparting knowledge, increasing skills and changing attitude. It is concerned with improving
the performance of existing managers, giving them opportunities for growth and development, and ensuring, as far as possible, that management succession within the organization is provided for.

According to Decenzo and Robins, “Management development is future oriented training focusing on personal growth of the employee. The emphasis of management development is on handling of situations, people or problems. It is largely self-development.

Objectives of Management Development
The goals/ objectives of management development are:
  • Increase managerial capabilities
  • Enhance managerial effectiveness
  • Foster teamwork
  • Facilitate environmental adoption
  • Improve managerial decision making
  • Facilitate managerial succession and career development
  • Aid managerial job satisfaction and retention
The objective of management development is to increase the effectiveness of the organization by improving the performance of managers by seeing they are clearly informed of their responsibilities, and by agreeing with them objectives against which their performance will be measured.
Identifying managers with further potential and ensuring they receive the required development, training and experience to equip them for more senior posts within their own locations and elsewhere in the organizations.
Assisting chief executives and manager throughout the organization to provide adequate succession and to create a system where by this are kept under regular view.

Process and Methods of Evaluating Training

The process of training evaluation is a cyclical process and consists of 4 steps.
Process of Evaluating Training
  1. Setting Intended Standards: These are the objectives of training and intended outcomes and serve as standards for performance of training. They can be in terms of reaction, learning, job behavior and results. 
  2. Measuring Actual Outcomes: The actual outcome of a given training activities is measured. Training reports provide information about performance.
  3. Finding Deviations: The actual outcome is compared with the intended outcomes. The deviations are found. The cases for deviation are identified and analyzed.
  4. Corrective Actions: They are taken to improve the current performance and to plan future training programmes. Objectives may be changed to make them realistic.
    1. Evaluation should be tailored to fit the particular training activity and be systematic and objective.
    2. The actors in evaluation may be trainee, trainer, coordinator, supervisor and external evaluators.
    3. The objects of evaluations can be physical and logistical facilities, teaching aids; curriculum, training methods, administration, finance, trainee, trainer, coordinator and supervisor, support staff.
    4. The timing of evaluation can be when participants enter the training or when participants complete training or end of the training programme or after the job re-entry of trainees.

Methods of Evaluation

These are various methods of evaluating training programs. The following are some of the major types:
  1. Questionnaire (Feedback forms) or happiness sheets are a common way of eliciting trainee responses to sources and programmes. 
  2. Tests or examinations are common on formal courses. Which provide a certificate e.g. diploma in word processing skills, although end-of course tests can be provided after short courses to check the progress of trainees.
  3. Projects are initially seen as learning methods but they can also provide valuable information to instructors.
  4. Structured exercise and case studies are opportunities to apply learned skills and techniques under the observation of tutors and evaluators.
  5. Tutor report is important to have the opinions of those who deliver the training. This gives a valuable assessment from a different perspective.
  6. Interviews of trainees post course or instruction period. These can be informal or formal, individual or group or by telephone.
  7. Observation of courses and training by those devising training strategies in the training department is very useful and information from these observations can be compared with trainee responses.
  8. Participation and discussion during training needs people who are adapting at interpreting responses, as this can be highly subjective.
For complicated training evaluations, it is recommended that a combination of these approaches be used. It is necessary to elicit the responses from the trainees, and the tutors or trainers, and other involved in the assessment process and then compare the responses for correlations.

Off-the-Job Training

Off-the-job training is sometimes necessary to get people away from the work environment to a place where the frustrations and bustle of work are eliminated. This enables the trainee to study theoretical information or be exposed to new and innovative ideas. The problem arises when those ideas or learning experiences do not appear
to relate to the work situation. Off-the-job training covers a number of techniques i.e. classroom lectures, films demonstrations, case studies, and other simulation exercise and programmed instruction. The facilities needed for each technique vary from a small, makeshift classroom to an elaborate development centre with large lecture halls, supplemented by small conference rooms with sophisticated instructional technology equipment. Because of its growing popularity in today’s technology oriented organizations. However, programmed instruction warrants a closer look.

The programmed instruction technique can be in the form of programmed tests and manuals, video displays, or some type of computer-based training. All programmed instruction approaches have common characteristics. They condense the material to be learned into highly organized, logical sequences that require the trainee to respond. The ideal format provides for nearly instantaneous feedback that informs the trainee if his or her response is correct. For example, popular today with the purchase of computer software is an accompanying tutorial program. This tutorial walks the user through the software application; give the individual opportunities to experiment with the program. These tutorials then form one basis of programmed instruction.

The methods used for off-the-job training are
  1. Classroom lectures: Lectures designed to communicate specific interpersonal or problem-solving skills. 
  2. Videos and films: Using various media productions to demonstrate specialized skills that are presented by other training method.
  3. Simulation exercise: Training that occurs by actually performing the work. This may include case analysis, exercise, role playing or group decision making.
  4. Computer-based training: Simulating the work environment by programming a computer to imitate some of the realities of the job.
  5. Vestibule training: Training on actual equipment used on the job, but conducted away from the actual work setting- a simulated workstation.
  6. Programmed instruction: Condensing training materials into highly organized logical sequences may include computer tutorials, interactive videodisks, or virtual reality simulations.
Before discussing the evaluation of training programs let us discuss the characteristics of effective training practice. One survey of corporate training and development practices found that four characteristics seemed to distinguish companies with the most effective training practices.
  • Top management is committed to training and development, training is part of the corporate culture. Thus Xerox Corporation invests about $300 million annually or about 2.5% of revenue on training.
  • Training is tied to business strategy and objectives and is linked to bottom-line results.
  • A comprehensive and systematic approach to training exists; training and retraining are done at all levels on a continuous, ongoing basis.
  • There is a commitment to invest the necessary resources, to provide sufficient necessary resources, to provide sufficient time and money for training.

On-the-Job Training

On-the-Job training is the most widely used training methods take place on the job. The popularity of these methods can be attributed to their simplicity and the impression that they are less costly to operate. On-the-Job training places the employees in actual work situations and makes them appear to be immediately productive. It is learning by doing. For jobs
that either are difficult to simulate or can be learned quickly by watching and dong, on-the-job training makes sense.

One of the drawbacks of on-the-job training can be low productivity while the employees develop their skills. Another drawback can be the errors made by the trainees while they learn-however, when the potential problems trainees can create are minimal where training facilities and staffs are limited or costly, or where it is desirable for the workers to learn the job under normal working condition, the benefits of on-the-job training frequently offset the drawbacks. Let’s look at two types of on-the-job training, apprenticeship programs and job instruction training. People are seeking to enter skilled trades-to become, for example, heating/air conditioning ventilation technicians. Plumbers or electricians-are often required to undergo apprenticeship training before they are elevated to master mechanic status. Apprenticeship programmes put the trainee under the guidance of a master worker. The agreement for apprenticeship programs is that the required job knowledge and skills are so complex as to rule out anything less than a period of time where the trainee understudies a skilled master. During the world work II, a systematic approach to on-the-job training was developed to prepare supervisors to train employee. This approach was called job instruction training (JIT). JIT proved highly effective and became extremely popular. JIT consists of four basis steps.
  • Preparing the trainees by telling them about the job and overcoming their uncertainties.
  • Presenting the instruction giving essential information in a clear manner.
  • Having the trainees try out to demonstrate their understanding.
  • Placing the workers in the job, on their own, with a designated resource person to call upon should they need assistance.
Job instruction training applications can achieve impressive results. By following these steps, studies indicate that employee turnover can be reduced. Higher level of employee morale has been witnessed, as well as decrease in employee accidents.

Advantages of On-the-Job Training
  • Supervisory takes an active part in the training programme. 
  • The training is relatively cheaper and convenient. No separate equipment and accommodation is required for training. The trainee produces during the training period.
  • The trainee learns in the actual job environment so that he is strongly motivated to learn. No adjustment is needed after the training as the training is not located in artificial situations. Employees are trained in accordance with the job requirements so the training is realistic.
Limitations of an On-the-Job Training:
  • If the supervisor’s methods are defective, the trainee learns the wrong methods. The effectiveness of training is dependent on the competence and motivation of the supervisor.
  • This method of training is very time consuming.
  • Training involves some interface in the normal work routine. At the sometime the pressure of work makes concentration on learning difficult. Some wastage or spoiled work may occur during training on the job. Trainees may cause damage to machinery and equipment.
  • There is no uniformity in training as every supervisor is a different training unit.
  • There is often the tendency in training as every supervisor is a different training unit.
  • There are often a tendency to ignore principles and theory in favour of immediate results.

Issues in Conducting Training Programmes

Training programmes need to be effectively implemented. Action assignments are the essence of conducting training programmes. Who, where, when and how of training activities need careful consideration?
  1. Administration: Administration of training programmes is a key implementation issue.
    1. What should be the design of relationships and coordination mechanism for training?
    2. What should coordinate training programs?
    3. Who should have authority to make changes in the training design during the conduct of training?
  2. Trainees (target group): Trainers are key actors in the conduct of training programmes. Many issues revolve around the trainers are
    1. Who should participate in the training?
    2. How should trainee be selected?
    3. How should indiscipline on the part of trainees be managed?
  3. Trainers: Trainers are key actors in the conduct of training programmes. Many issues revolve around the trainers are
    1. Who should participate in the training?
    2. How should trainee be selected?
    3. How should indiscipline on the part of trainers or resource persons from external sources?
    4. What should be compensation modality for the trainers?
    5. Should there be a roster of resource person?
    6. What should be the modality for evaluating the effectiveness of trainers?
    7. How should trainers be trained?
  4. Training methods: Training methods are the mechanism of conducting training. The key issues in training methods are
    1. What training methods should be used for conducting training?
    2. Should be used for conducting training? Should they be on the job or off-the-job methods?
    3. What methods should be used to make training practical and experimental?
    4. Should the training methods furs. Individual work or group work?
  5. Training Materials: The key issues related to training materials are
    1. Who should develop training materials and of what type?
    2. When should train materials be distributed?
    3. What training aids should be used?
  6. Mode of delivery: The mode of delivery poses many issues for the conduct of training. They are
    1. What types of information system should be developed for conduct of training?
    2. What records should be kept for training?
    3. What records should be kept for training?
    4. How can the safety and confidentiality of training records be ensured?
  7. Resources: The key issues are
    1. How should the training budget be released, spent and controlled?
    2. Should training expresses be audited?
  8. Evaluation: The key issues are
    1. How should the impact of training be evaluated?
    2. What variables should be considered for evaluation?
    3. Should there be continuous evaluation of training while it is being conducted?
    4. How should the evaluation result be used for effecting improvements in training programs?
Besides mentioned above all the points of emerging issues in the design and conducting of training programs, the following heads should be taken into a consideration.
  • Job entry training may be necessary before a person can be considered for entry to a job. For example, passing a pole-climbing course prior to being considered for a job as a telephone installer or repairer.
  • Admission into the training program.
  • The training process itself may have an adverse impact on women and minorities. For example, physical equipment for training may be designed primarily for men, thereby making it difficult for some women to use because of their generally shorter legs and arms. The vocabulary level in training manuals may require a reading ability for higher than is necessary to perform the job itself, consistently results in inferior performance by women and minorities.
  • Career decisions, such as the retention in the training program or preferential job assignment, are sometimes made on the basis of measures collected during training.
  • Affirmative action plans commonly specify goals for the recruitment. Selection and training of women and minorities.

Different Techniques of On-the-Job and Off-the-Job Training

Employees training and management development programmes are directed towards updating and enabling the human resource of the organization to face the emerging the challenges in jobs. The different techniques of on-the-job and off-the-job training for managers and supervisions are:

On-the-Job Techniques

These techniques are most widely used techniques. The objectives of these methods center on the job, more specially, learning on the job itself by a variety of methods. The success of these techniques depends upon the immediate supervisor and how a good teacher he is. It is of utmost importance as the real learning takes place only when the learner uses what he has learnt on the job methods includes.

  1. Coaching: Here the superior acts as a coach. The training of a subordinate by his immediate superior is by the most effective management development technique. Here the trainee serves as an assistant to the senior officer so that he may fill up the vacancy, which may arise in future. The coach may maintain a development file for each subordinate indicating the training the subordinate is receiving, the skills the subordinate is acquiring and how well the subordinate is performing. 
  2. Position Rotation: Position rotation refers to the rotation of the trainee form one job to another as a systematic and regular basis so as to broaden his knowledge and understanding. Position rotation promotes competition among the rotating trainees. It reduces barriers to internal communication and facilitates interdepartmental; co-operation by familiarizing the trainee with various aspects of the firm’s operations. But the programmed of position rotation may create the problem of indiscipline moral and disruption unless it is administered skillfully. 
  3. Special Projects and Task Forces: Under special project, an executive is assigned a project that is closely related to the objectives of his department. For example, a trainee may be asked to develop a system of cost control in the executive of an order. He will study the problem and make recommendations upon it. This project will also help in educating the trainee about the importance of cost and the organizational relationships with the accounting and other departments. Thus he acquires knowledge of allied subjects too. 
  4. Experience: Learning through experience is the oldest techniques of executive development. This method says that the people can learn through their own experiences. The main problem with this method is that it is wasteful and time-consuming method.
  5. Understudy: An understudy is a person who is in training to assume at the future, the full responsibility of the positive currently held by his superior. This method supplies the organization a person with as much competence as the superior to fill his post, which may be chosen by the department or its head. He will then teach what all his entire job involves and gives a feel of what his job is. This understudy also learns the decision making as his superior involve him in the discussion of daily operating problems as well as long term problems.
  6. Selective Readings: By reading selected professional books journals, manager can keep in touch with the latest developments research findings, theories and techniques in management. Many organizations maintain libraries for their executives and managers to encourage them to read and improve their skill. 
  7. Committee Assign: Under this method, the executive is placed on a particular committee which is to make the recommendations on a particular aspect. The executives learn by the discussions in the committee meeting.
  8. Multiple Management: It is a system in which management advisory committees of managers study problems of the company and make recommendations to higher management. It is also called junior broad of executive system. These committees discuss the actual problem and different alternative solutions after which the decisions are taken.
  9. Techniques of Executives Development

Off-the-Job Techniques

Executives can be given training through off-the-Job method. The most commonly used types off-the-job training is problem solving conference and case study methods. Interdepartmental meeting at the higher executives level visits to other companies for exchange of ideas with counterparts and participation in the activities of professional societies are off-the-job training method for managers and supervisor.
1. Case Study: The case is a actual situation which is written for discussion purpose. Analysis would need problem identification analysis of the situation and ot its causes. There would be several solutions to the problem and each of these alternatives and their implications needs to be examined. In the real world, on many occasions, a manager may not have all the relevant information with him before taking a decision. Similarly, the case method approximates this reality and in men’s situations decisions are taken with limited data, or what is termed decision-making under uncertainty. The managerial response in such a situation is explored and understood and learning consists of developing problem solving skills.

2. Brain Storming: Under this method, a problem is posed and ideas are invited from the trainees, criticism of any idea is critically examined. There is no trainer and the trainees are stimulated to creative thinking. The purpose is to reduce the inhibiting forces by providing for a maximum of group participation and divergence.

3. Conference and Seminars: A conference is a meeting of several people to discuss the subject of common interest. Better contribution from members can be expected as each one builds upon ideas of other participants. This method is best suited when a problem has to be analyzed and examined from different viewpoints. It helps the members develop their ability to modify their attitudes. Participants enjoy this method of learning as they get an opportunity to express their views.

The success of the conference depends on the conference leader. In order to make the conference leader must be able to see that the discussion is through and concentrate on the central problem by encouraging all the participants to develop alternatives and present their viewpoints and by preventing domination by a few participants.

4. Special Course: the executives are required to attend special courses formally organized by the enterprises with the help of experts from educational institutions. The executives may also be sponsored to attend the course to be conducted by management institutions.

This method is popular these days. However, due to high fee only the big enterprises may send their executives to the management development courses run by management institutions.

5. Simulation: Simulation implies the real organizational situations in the training sessions. Trainees are given specific situations of varying complexities, which they encounter in real life.
a. Role playing: In recent years, the role-playing technique is becoming popular. Under this method, the employees learns by playing role is that the trainee understands the situation from a perspective different from his own. Supervisors meet in conference and two are selected to act out some situation or problem, which is commonly faced. An employee seeking transfer is commonly encountered. One of the supervisor is assigned the role of the employee and the other acts as his supervisor, without rehearsal the two will act out how the supervisor and employee would react, when the two act, other members observe make mental notes and evaluate the performance. After the dream is complete, others may be selected to act out the same situation or a general discussion of the acting may be made. It corresponds to the modern case method of training.
This method has many advantages. First, the learner learns by doing and puts what he has learned into practice; second the trainee assists in training himself. He is in front of a group of his colleagues when he is playing a part and he knows what he say is being recorded. He can observe critically his own actions. Lastly, there is a high degree of learning by observing and listening. The competitive instinct makes each man do his best to excel.

b. In basket: This is a simulation training designed around the ‘incoming mail’ of a manager. A variety of situation is presented which would usually be dealth with by an executive in his working day. His reactions and responses are taken down in writing and then analyzed. Feedback on his decision forces him to reconsider not only his administrative actions but also his behavioural style. A variation of this is the incident method but also his behavioural style. A variation of this is the incident method where significant incidents having behavioural implications are analyzed and used as a training method.

c. Management Games: This is very special type of training under which the managerial executives are trained to take the decision under uncertainty. Under this method, a group of managerial executives complete with each other to arrive at decisions about definite business problems under stimulated conditions created specifically for the purpose. This method provides an opportunity to the managerial personnel to understand and appreciate the views of other persons.

Major issues in designing training programs

Training design affects the effectiveness of training program. Before conducting the training, there are various things to be analyzed and the arrangements are to be managed effectively. So, predetermining the forms of training and shaping the training related plan is training design. Training designs are means of attaining desired objectives
set for a training programmes. In practice, a variety of training methods are employed for achieving these objectives. But, an organizations cannot be used all types of training methods are the reasons like cost involved and also their relevance to organizational needs.

Hence, organization needs to select a methods or mix of methods to meet its training needs. The choice of training methods would depend on a variety of factors, such as purpose of training, nature of contents, relevance to the participants, level of trainees, competence of trainers/ instructors cost, etc.

Training is concerned with enhancing the knowledge and skills of employees in the present job. It should be properly designed. The key issues in designing training programmes are:

  1. Goals and Scope: The goals and scope of the training present a key design issue. What goals should the training programmes achieve? What level of employees should be included? 
    1. What types of skills i.e. technical, human, conceptual should be included?
    2. What type of training needs should be fulfilled?
    3. Should the training focus on increasing skills or aim at personal growth of the employee?
  2. Structure: The structure of training is also a key issue in training design.
    1. What should be the mix of theory and practice?
    2. Should training be adapted to specific problem?
    3. Should training tackle simple to complex task?
  3. Principles of Learning: The principle of learning to be adopted for training also pose key issue
    1. Should training be teacher centered or student centred?
    2. How can training be transferred to job?
    3. How to motivate the learners?
    4. How could training provide practicing opportunities?
  4. Curriculum/ training material: The curriculum of training also poses a key issue for training design.
    1. How should the curriculum be designed for new the keep it up-to-date?
    2. Should the curriculum be divided in modules?
    3. How should the curriculum be delivered?
    4. What geographical area should be covered?
  5. Duration: The duration is also key design issue for training.
    1. Should the training be one-shot affair or continuous process?
    2. Can training be staggered so that employees can take it in various modules at various level times?
  6. Responsibility for Training: The responsibility for training should be clearly defined:
    1. Top management should approve training plans, programmes and budget.
    2. The HRM department should design and implement training plans and programmes.
    3. Other departments should facilitate and support training programmes by deputing trainees and trainers.
  7. Finance: Finance is considered as lifeblood of every organization. Without adequacy of finance, organizational goals cannot be achieved. Therefore, financial aspects are on important issue in training design
    1. What should be the basis for allocating budget for training?
    2. Should trainee get extra allowances and incentives for attending training programmes?
    3. Should trainee pay for training?
    4. How could training be made more cost effective?
    5. How could training be made sustainable?

Factors determining the training needs of employees

There are three levels of analysis for determining the needs that training can fulfill.
  1. Organizational analysis focuses on identifying where within the organization training is needed.
  2. Operation analysis attempts to identify the content of training-what an employee must do in order to perform competently.
  3. Individual analysis determines how well each employee is performing the tasks that make up his or her job.
Analysis of the organization’s external environment and internal climate is also essential. Trends in the strategic priorities of business, judicial decisions, civil right laws, union activity, productivity, and accidents, turnover, absenteeism, and on-the job employee behavior will provide relevant information at this level. The important question then becomes “will training
produce changes in the employee behavior that will contribute to our organizational goals?”

Operations analysis requires a careful examination of the job to be performed after training. It involves a systematic collection of information that describes exactly how jobs are done.
  • Standards of performance for jobs can be determined.
  • How tasks are to be performed to meet the standards.
  • The knowledge, skills, abilities and other characteristics are necessary for effective task performance. Job analyses, performance appraisal, interview (with jobholders, supervisors, and higher management) and analyses of operating problems (quality control, downtime reports, and customer complaints) also provide important inputs to the analysis of training needs.
Finally there is an individual analysis. At this level, training needs may be defined in terms of the following general idea.
  • The difference between desired performance and actual performance are the individual’s training need. Performance standards, identified in the operations analysis phase conspire desired performance. Individual performance date, diagnostic rating of employees by their supervisors, records of performance kept by workers in diary form, attitude surveys, interviews, or tests (job knowledge, work sample, or situational) can provide information on actual performance against which each employee can be compared to desired job performance standards. Training may fill a gap between actual and desired performance.
However, assessing the needs for training does not end here. To evaluate the results of training and to assess what trainings are needed in the future, needs must be analyzed regularly and at all three levels.
  • At the organizational level, needs must be analyzed by the manager who set the organization’s goals.
  • At the operation level, need must be analyzed by the managers who specify how the organization’s goals are going to be achieved.
  • At the individual level, needs must be analyzed by the managers and workers who do the work to achieve those goals.

A System Approach to Training

A systems approach to training includes the following points.
  • Development on the job, through coaching, counseling, monitoring and feedback by managers on a continuous basis associated with the use of performance management systems to identify and satisfy development needs.
  • Development through work experience, which includes job rotation, job enlargement taking part in project teams or task groups.
  • Formal training, by means of internal or external courses which are used to teach new skills or help people to acquire additional knowledge, but aim to supplement experience rather than replace it.
  • Structured self-development, by following self-development programmes agreed with the manager or a management adviser- these may include guided.
  • The formal approaches to management development or acquisition of new skills on the job development needs through a performance management system or an assessment centre. The approach may be structured around a list of competencies, which have been defined as being appropriate for managers in the organization.
A typical list of managerial competencies as compiled by Henley management collage is as follows
Intellectual Analysis and judgement             
Interpersonal
Persuasiveness
Interpersonal sensitivity
Adaptability
Results
Achievement motivation
Strategic perspective Planning and organizing
Managing staff
Assertiveness and decisiveness
Oral communication
Adaptability and resilience
Energy and initiative
Business sense

These approaches include:
  • Emphazing self-assessment and the identification of development needs by getting manager to assess their own performance against agreed objectives and analyze the factors contributing to effective performance- this can be provided through a performance management system. 
  • Encouraging managers to discuss their own problems and opportunities with their bosses or colleagues in order to establish for themselves what they need to learn or be able to do.

Various Mechanisms for HRD (Human Resource Development)

Investment in human resource development is most enduring to the organization because without it, organization is only a skeleton. The various mechanisms for Human Resource Development (HRD) are:
  1. Systematic training mechanism: Systematic training is a training which is specifically designed to meet defined needs. It is planned and provided by people who know how to train, and the impact of training is carefully evaluated. Systematic training is carefully evaluated. Systematic training is based on a simple four-stage model expressed as follows:
    1. Defined training needs
    2. Decide what sort of training is required to satisfy these needs.
    3. Use experienced and trained trainers to plan and implement training.
    4. Follow up and evaluation to ensure that is effective.
  2. Planned training mechanism: Planned training as defined by Kenney and Reid (1988) is a deliberate intervention aimed at achieving the learning necessary for improved job performance. The process of planned training consists of the following steps.
    1. Identify and define training needs: This involves analyzing corporate, team, occupational and individual needs to acquire new skills or knowledge or to improve existing competencies (competence is defined as the ability and willingness to perform a task). The analysis method at this stage on the extent to which training is the best and most cost effective way to solve the problem.
    2. Define the learning required: It is necessary to specify as clearly as possible what skills and knowledge have to be learnt, and what attitudes need to be developed.
    3. Define the objectives of training: Learning objectives are set which defines not only what has to be learnt, but also what trainees must be able to do after their training programs.
    4. Implement the training: Ensue that the most appropriate methods are used.
  3. Continuing development mechanism: Training has to be planned properly, but a philosophy of continuing development states that training is not just something, which is provided for people by the organization at the start of their employment or at occasional points in their career. It should instead be regarded as a continuing process, with less emphasis on formal instruction and an increased requirement for trainees to be responsible for their own learning, with help and guidance from their managers. The learning activity in an organization is to be fully beneficial both to the organization and its employees, the following conditions must be met.
    1. The organization must have some form of strategic business. It is desirable that the implications of the strategic plan, in terms of the skills and knowledge of the employees. Who will achieve it? It should be spelled out.
    2. Managers must be ready and willing to define and meet needs as they appear. All learning needs cannot be anticipated: organizations must faster a philosophy of continuous development.
    3. As for as practicable, learning and work must be integrated. This means that encouragement must be given to all employees to learn from the problems, challenges and successes inherent in their day-to-day activities.
    4. Performance related training approach: A performance related approach to training relates training specifically to performance requirements. For individuals this may mean filling gaps between what they know and can do and what they should know and be able to do. But concentrating on filling gaps may mean falling into the trap of adopting the “deficiency model” of training which implies that training is only about putting right the things that have gone wrong.
Training are much more positive that, it is or should be, more concerned with identifying and satisfying development needs multi-skilling, fitting people to take on extra responsibility, providing for management succession and increasing all round competence.

Managing Quality of HRD

Human resource development (HRD) is concerned with preparing employees to work effectively and efficiently in the organization. It is an important function of human resource management. It ensures that organizations have adequate human resources with capabilities needed for achieving goals effectively. HRD include its working activities and their
interconnectedness with each other to increase productivity and quality of work refers to the employees perceptions of their physical and mental well being at work. The HRD mechanism aims to attain the goal of productivity and quality of work.

HRD quality is perception of excellence by employees and managers to satisfy HRD needs through HRD programmes. The concept of total quality management (TQM) should be used to manage the quality of HRD programmes. TQM is continuously improving the quality of HRD programmes, through everyone commitment and involvement to satisfy needs of participants. Total quality management for HRD requires
  • Commitment from top management for HRD.
  • Intense focus on employees and manager participants in HRD programmes.
  • Participants involvement at all levels of HRD.
  • Use of new technology and new methods in the delivery of HRD.
  • Feedback from participants about HRD quality.
  • HRM actions needed to manage quality of HRD are
    • Ensure that all HRD programmes work within the HRD policy and are consistent with organizational goals.
    • Priorities HRD needs. Do not dilute resource on to may needs
    • Recognize efforts of participants in HRD programmes
    • Reward individual and group efforts to improve the quality of HRD 
  • Control the effectiveness of HRD efforts in terms of 
    •  Reaction criteria: Feeling of participants to the contents, process, method of HRD.
    • Learning criteria: Knowledge, skills, attitudes acquired through HRD experience.
    • Behavior criteria: Changes in job behavior that result after HRD programmes.
    • Result criteria: Improvements in organizational performance after HRD programmes.

Managing Productivity of HRD

Productivity is the efficiency relationship between input and output. It is input-output ratio within a time frame with due consideration quality. It is needed to be properly planned and managed. Components of productivity in HRD are
  1. Technology: Availability of HRD technology in terms of skills systems equipment.
  2. Innovation: Creation and implementation of new ideas.
  3. Learning: Change in behavior resulting from skills and management development.
  4. Motivation: Ability to do jobs effectively for higher performance.
  5. Cost effective: Efficiently utilized resource allocated to HRD helps to reduce cost with maintaining quality.
The total benefits of HRD should exceed total costs of HRD, HRD should aim for high value for money.

Productivity of HRD should be managed by
  • Effecting participants’ involvement in the formulation and implementation of HRD programmes.
  • Enhancing motivation of participants for HRD
  • Linking HRD rewards with performance.
  • Creating supportive organizational climate for HRD
  • Controlling HRD, efforts monitoring and evaluation. Feedback is essential for control.

Concept of Human Resource Development

These essence of HRM (Human Resource Development) is that employees are valued assets and that the value should be increased by a systematic and coherent approach to investing in their training and development. Researching is about providing the skill base needed by the organization. Human resource development
(HRD) is about enhancing and widening these skills by training, by helping people to grow within the organization and by enabling them to make better use of their skills and abilities. Researching and HRD policies are closely linked. Companies can operate a make or buy policy (or a combination of the two) growing their own skills or acquiring them from elsewhere.

Human resource development involves  
  • The use of systematic and planned training approaches 
  • Adopting a policy of continuous development.
  • Creating and maintain a learning organization.
  • Ensuring that all training activities are performance related.
  • Paying particular attention to management development and career planning.

Need of HRD (Human Resource Development)

Besides enlarging and developing the skill base of the organization, investment in HRD satisfies following needs.
  1. A signal to employees that the company believes they are important.
  2. Motivation to acquire and use new skills for which they will be rewarded.
  3. Commitment by communicating to employees the values of the organization. For example, quality and customer service, and ensuring that they learn how they should uphold them.
  4. Identification with the company by helping people to achieve a better understanding of its aims and policies.
  5. Communication: Training can provide an effective channel for two-way communication, especially if ‘workshop’ are used to being managers and employees together to discuss organizational issues and develop plans jointly to deal with them.
  6. Need satisfaction: Training can contribute to the satisfaction of people’s needs for achievement and recognition; to be signed out to attend a course can be a powerful motivator.
  7. Job enrichment through skills development training can enable people to exercise greater responsibility, and can enlarge their portfolio of skills, which they can use both to their advantage, and that of the company. For example, an important spin-off from the introduction of quality circles is the training given to their members in analytical, problem-solving and presentation skills.
  8. Change management: Education and training are essential ingredients in a change management programme. They help people to understand why change management programme. They help people to understand why change is necessary and how they will benefit. They can equip them with the confidence to cope with change and skills they need to implement it.
In short, human resource development empowers members of the organization to increase their contribution to its success while enabling them to build their skills and capacities simultaneously.

Common Principles of Designing HRD (Human Resource Development)

Human resource development (HRD) are concerned with training and development to prepare employees to work effectively and efficiently. The design of HRD should be based on the following principles.
  1. Clear Objectives: The objectives and scope of HRD programmes should be clearly defined. HRD should aim to satisfy HRM needs and goals. 
  2. Need-related Mechanism: HRD mechanisms should be directly related to the needs of employees and the objectives of organization.
  3. Learning principles: HRD should use tested principles of learning. It should reinforce learning and motivate employees to learn.
  4. Participation: HRD programmes should actively encourage participation by the learners, they should encourage participant involvement.
  5. Opportunities for practice: HRD should provide opportunity to practice. It should be conducted in the actual job environment to the maximum possible extent to practice what is being learned. Practice also facilitates transfer of HRD to jobs.
  6. Feedback: HRD should provide timely feedback on participant’s performance. Feedback should be used as means for improving HRD programmes.
  7. Continuous: HRD should continue throughout the employee’s career. It should not be a “one short” affair.

Concept of Recruitment, Policies and Difference between Recruitment and Selection

Concept of Recruitment

Recruitment forms the first stage in the process, which continues with selection and ceases with the placement of the candidate. Recruiting makes it possible to acquire the number and types of people necessary to ensure the continued operations of the organization. Recruiting is the discovering of potential applicants for actual or anticipated organizational vacancies. In other words, it
is a ‘Linking activity’ beginning together those with jobs and those seeking jobs.

According to Decenzo and Robbins, “Recruiting is the discovering of potential candidates for actual or anticipated organizational vacancies.”

According to Dale Yoder, “Recruitment is a process to discover the sources of manpower to meet the requirements of the staffing schedule and to employ effective measures for attracting that manpower in adequate numbers to facilitate effective selection of an efficient working force.”

Factors Influencing Recruitment

There are a number of factors that affect recruitment. These are broadly classified into categories:
Internal Factors
The internal factors also called endogenous factors are the factors within the organization that affect recruiting personnel in the organization. Some of these are mentioned here.
  1. Size of the Organization: The size of an organization affects the recruitment process. Experience suggests that larger organizations find recruitment less problematic than organizations with smaller in size.
  2. Recruiting Policy: The recruiting policy of the organization i.e., recruiting from internal sources (from own employees) and from external sources (from outside the organization) also affects recruitment process. Generally, recruiting through internal sourcing is preferred, because own employees know the organization and they can well fit into the organization’s culture.
  3. Image of Organization: Image of an organization is another internal factor having its influence on the recruitment process of the organization. Good image of the organization earned by a number of overt and covert actions by management, helps attract potential and competent candidates. Managerial actions like good public relations, rendering public services like construction of road, public parks, hospitals and schools help to earn image or goodwill for the organization. That is why blue chip companies attract large number of applications.
  4. Image of Job: Just as image of organization affects recruitment, so does the image of a job also. Better remuneration and working conditions are considered the characteristics of good image of a job. Besides, promotion and career development policies of organization also attract potential candidates.
External Factors
Like internal factors, there are some external factors to an organization, which have their influence on recruitment process. Some of these are given below:
  1. Demographic Factors: As demographic factors are intimately related to human beings, i.e., employees, these have profound influence on recruitment process. Demographic factors include sex, age, literacy, economic status etc.
  2. Labour Market: Labour market conditions i.e., supply and demand of labour is of particular importance in affecting recruitment process. For example, if the demand for a specific skill is high relative to its supply, recruiting employees will involve more efforts. On the contrary, if supply is more than demand for a particular skill, recruitment will be relatively easier.
  3. Unemployment Situation: The rate of unemployment is yet another external factor having its influence on the recruitment process. When the unemployment rate in a given areas is high, the recruitment process tends to be simpler. The reason is not difficult to seek. The number of applicants is expectedly very high which makes easier to attract the best qualified applicants. The reverse is also true. With a low rate of employment, recruiting process tends to become difficult.
  4. Labour Laws: There are several labour laws and regulations passed by the Central Governments that govern different types of employment. These cover working conditions, compensation, retirement benefits, and safety and health of employees in industrial undertakings.
  5. Legal Considerations: Another external factor is legal considerations with regard to employment. Reservation of jobs for the scheduled castes, scheduled tribes, and other backward classed (OUCs) is the popular example of such legal consideration. The Government of Nepal (GON) has also given its verdict in favour of jobs and seats to these groups. 
Development of Recruitment Policies
Legal and labour market issues as a framework for setting recruitment policies, let us consider four different possible company postures.
  1. Passive non-discrimination is a commitment to treat all races and both sexes equally in all decisions about hiring, promotion, and pay. No attempt is made to recruit actively among prospective minority applicants. This posture fails to recognize that discriminate practices in the past may black prospective applicants from seeking present job opportunities.
  2. Pure affirmative action is a concern effort by the organization actively on expands the pool of applicants so that no one is excluded because of past or present discrimination. However, the decision to hire or to promote is based on the best-qualified individual regardless of race or sex.
  3. Affirmative action with preferential hiring goes further than pure affirmative action. It is systematically favours women and minorities in hiring and promotion decisions. This is a “soft-quota” system.
  4. Hard quotas represent a mandate to hire or promote specific numbers or proportions of women or minority-group members.
Difference between Recruitment and Selection
RecruitmentSelection
1. Recruitment technically precedes selection.1. Selection follows requirement.
2. Recruitment refers to the process of identifying and encouraging potential candidates to apply for jobs in the organizations.2. Selection involves choosing the best out of those recruited.
3. Recruitment is positive as it aims at increasing the number of jobseekers (applicants) for wider choice or increasing the selection ratio.3. Selection, on the other hand, is said to be negative in its application in as much as it rejects a large number of unqualified applicants in order to identify those who are suitable for the jobs.
4. In sum, recruitment involves searching.4. Selection involves comparing those already searched.

Need of Recruitment Policies, Types of Interview

The success or failure largely depends upon the ability and efficiency of the employees. Recruitment policy should be very sound so that capable and efficient employees are hired only. Therefore, organizations need sound requirement policies because of the following reasons:
  • Higher posts must be filled through promotions so far as possible. 
  • No such assurance should be given at the time of recruitment which may not be followed later on.
  • The selection of employees must be strictly in accordance with the merit.
  • The qualification, experience, terms of services, salaries etc. must be determined well in advance.
  • New posts must be authorized by a higher officer.
  • The number of employees to be recruited must be determined will in advance according to the need of enterprise.

Need to Practice Formal Selection Process

There is no denying of the fact that it is people only working in the organizations that make all the difference. Hence, choosing the right person for the job is critical to the organization’s success. Faulty selection or choice can have a far-reaching impact on the organizational functioning and performance. Wrong or inappropriate selection is not welcome because it
proves costly to the organization, demoralizes the employees put in the wrong job and also demotivates to the rest of the work force.

To be more specific, the following points highlights, why organization needs formal selection process.
  1. For selecting an employee in a non-discriminates way.
  2. Selection process should be based on scientific selection methods.
  3. Selection principles should be based on right man in right place.
  4. According to the needs of organization, people should be acquired on the basis of knowledge, skill and commitment.
  5. To increase the productivity of employees.
  6. To maintain the sound relationship between employees and employee.
  7. Finally to minimize the probable conflicts between individual, groups and entire organization.

Types of Interviews

Four types of interviews for selection have been identified. These are:
  1. Preliminary Interview: The interviews conducted to screen the applicants to decide whether further detailed interview will be required are called preliminary interviews. The candidate is given freedom by giving job details during the interview to decide whether the job will suit him. One of the drawback associated with the preliminary interview is that it might lead to the elimination of many desirable candidates in case interviewers do not have much and proper experience in evaluating candidates. The positive argument, if any, for this method is that it saves time and money for the company.
  2. Patterned Interview: In this interview, the pattern of the interview is decided in advance. What kind of information is to be sought or given, how the interview is to be conducted, and how much time is to be allotted to it, all these are worked out in advance. In case interviewee drifts, he/she is swiftly guided back to the structured questions. Such interviews are also called standardized interviews.
  3. Depth Interview: As the term itself implies, depth interview tries to portray the interviewee in depth and detail. It, accordingly, covers the life history of the applicant along with his/her work experience, academic qualifications, health, attitude, interest, and hobbies. This method is particularly suitable for executive selection. Expectedly, depth interview involves more time and money in conducting it.
  4. Stress Interview: Such interviews are conducted for the jobs which are to be performed under stressful conditions. The objective of stress interview is to make deliberate attempts to create stressful or strained conditions for the interviewee to observe how the applicant behaves under stressful conditions. The common methods used to induce stress include frequent interruptions, keeping silent for an extended period of time, asking too many questions at a time, making derogatory remarks about the candidate, accusing him that he is lying and so on. The purpose is to observe how the candidate behaves under the stressful conditions whether he looses his temper, gets confused or frightened.
However, stress-inducing must be done very carefully by trained and skilled interviewer otherwise it may result in dangers. Emotionally charged candidates must not be subjected to further stressful conditions. The candidate should be given sufficient chance to cope with such induced stress before he leaves.

Sources of Manpower in an Organization

Before an organization activity begins recruiting applicants, it should consider the most likely source of the type of employee it needs. Some companies they to develop new sources while most only they to tackle the existing sources they have-these sources, accordingly, may be termed as;

1. Internal sources:
Internal sources include personnel already on the payroll of an organization, i.e. its present working force. Whenever any vacancy occurs, somebody from within the organization is up graded, transferred promoted or sometimes demoted. This source also includes personnel who were once on the payroll of the company but who plan to return or whom the company would like to
retire, such as those on leave of absence, those who quit voluntarily or those on production layoffs.

Merits of Internal Sources:
  • The employer is in a better position to evaluate those presently employed than outside candidates.
  • As a person in the employment of the company are fully aware of an well acquainted with its policies and know its operating procedures, they require little training and the chances are that they would stay longer in the employment of the organization that a new outsider would.
  • It improves the moral of employees, for they are assured of the fat that they would be preferred over outsiders when vacancies occur.
  • It is less costly than going outside to recruit.
  • It promotes loyalty among the employees for it gives them a sense of job security and opportunities for advancement.
  • They are tried people and can, therefore be relied upon.
Demerits of Internal Sources:
  • As promotion is based on seniority, the danger is that really capable hands may not be chosen. The likes and dislikes of the management may also play important role in the selection of personnel.
  • It often leads to inbreeding and discourages new blood from entering an organization.
2. External sources: Every enterprise has to top external sources for various positions because all the vacancies cannot be filled through internal recruitment. The present employers may be insufficient or they may not fulfill the specifications of the jobs to be filled. External recruitment provides wide choice brings new blood in the organization. However it is an expensive and time consuming. The various external sources of recruitment are as follows:
  1. Recruitment Advertising: Advertisement in local or national newspapers or trade and professional journals is generally used when qualified or experienced personnel are not available from other sources. Most of the senior positions in industry as well as in trade are filled by this method, particularly when they cannot be filled from with it. The advantage of advertising is that more information about the organization, job description and job specification can be given in advertisement to allow self-screening by the perspective candidates. Advertisement gives the management a wider range of candidates for selection. But its disadvantage is that it brings in a flood of response even from quite unsuitable candidates and many applicants try to approach the members of the selection body.
  2. Employment Exchange and Agencies: Employment exchanges are the most popular source of recruitment for unskilled, skilled or semiskilled operative jobs. The seekers get their name registered with employment exchanged managed and operated by the central and state governments. The employers notify the vacancies to such exchanges and the exchanges refer the names of prospective candidates to the employers. Some private agencies also do recruit the technical and professional personnel for a company. They provide a nationwide service in attempting to match the demand and supply of personnel. Many private agencies tend to specialize in a particular type of work like sales, office, engineers etc.
  3. Recruitment from Colleagues: Jobs in trade and industry have become increasingly technical and complex to the point where school and college degree are widely required consequently, many big organizations maintain a close liaison with the universities vocational institutions and management schools for recruitment to various jobs.
  4. Causal Callers: Many well-reputed business organizations draw a steady stream of unsolicited applicants in their offices. Such job seekers can be a valuable source of manpower. A waiting list of such visitors may be prepared and they may be screened to fill the vacancies as they arise. The advantage of this source of recruitment is that it avoids the cost of recruitment from other sources. However, unsolicited applicants may become a disturbance in the daily routine of the enterprise.
  5. Recommendations: Applicants introduced by the employee’s friends and relatives to the organization may prove to be a good source of recruitment and indeed, many employers praetor to take persons because something about their background is known. When a present employee or a business friend recommends a person a short of preliminary screening has already taken place. Some organizations have agreements in the unions of employees to give preference to relatives or existing or retired employees if their qualifications and experience are suited for the vacancies.
Merits of External Environment:
  • Since persons are recruited from a large market the best selection can be made without any distinctions of caste, sex or colour.
  • In the long run, this source proves economical because potential employees do not need extra training for their jobs.
  • External sources provide the requisite type of personnel for an organization, having skill, training and education up to the required standard. Limitations of external recruitment however, this system suffers from what is called “brain drain” especially when experienced persons are required persons are raided or hunted by sister concerns.

Selection Test - Recruitment

A test is a systematic procedure for comparing the behavior of two or more person. Individuals differ in many respects including job related abilities and skills. In other to select a right person for the job, individual differences in terms of abilities and skills need to be adequately and accurately measured for comparison. This is done a device called ‘selection test’. Selection test is
advice that uncovers the information about the candidates which are not known through application blank and interview.

The following precautions would be taken while arising selection tests. They are:
1. Achievement Tests: Achievement tests measure a person’s potential in a given area job. In other words, these tests measure what a person can do based on skill or knowledge already acquired by him/her. Achievement tests are usually used for admission to specific course in the academic institutions. In these tests, grades in previous examinations are after used as indicators of achievements and potential for learning.

2. Intelligence tests: Intelligence tests are measure general ability for intellectual performance. The core concept underlying in intelligence test is mental age. It is presumed that with physical age, intelligence also grows. Mental age is generally indexed in terms of Intelligence Quotient (IQ) and calculated by using the following formula:
IQ=Mental Age/Actual Age x 100

Intelligence testing in industry is based on the assumptions that if the organization can get bright, alert employees quick at learning, it can train then faster than those who are less well endowed.
 
3. Personality Tests: These tests are also known as personality inventories. These tests are designed to measure the dimensions of personality i.e. personality trait such as interpersonal competence, dominance-submission, extroversion-intro versions, self-confidence, ability to lead and ambition.

4. Aptitude Tests: Aptitude test measure ability and skills of the test. These tests measure and indicate how well a person would to perform after training and not what he/she has done. Thus, aptitude tests are used to predict the future ability/ performance of a person. There are two objectives of the aptitudes tests. One is advice youth or job seekers regarding field of activities in which they are likely to succeed. This is called vocational guidance. Second to select best performance for jobs they may succeed. This test is called vocational selection.

5. Interest Tests: These tests are discovered a person’s area of interest, and to identify the kind of work that will satisfy him. It is assumed that a person who is interested in a job can do much better than the person who is not interested.

6. Attitude Tests: These tests are designed to know the test’s tendencies towards favouring or otherwise to people, situations, actions and a host of such other things. Attitudes are known from the responses of the tests/ respondents because emotional overtones involved make it difficult to directly observe of measure attitude of the test. Test of social desirability, authoritarianism, study of values, Machiavellianism and employees morale are the well-known examples of attitude tests.

7. Proficiency Tests: A proficiency test is designed to measure the level of knowledge, proficiency or skills already acquired by an individual in a particulars job or occupation. It is also known as performance test or trade test or achievement test or ability test.

Recruitment Policy/ Selection Process of Officer Level Staff

Recruitment Policy

Recruitment policy defines recruitment programme, a proper organization structure, and procedures for locating sources of manpower resources suitable methods and techniques. Recruitment policy should be very sound so that capable and efficient employees are hired. A good recruitment policy consists of the following points.
  • The number of employees to be recruited must be determined will in advance according to the need of enterprises.
  • The qualification, experience, terms of service, salaries etc. must be determined well in advance.
  • The whole process of the recruitment must be completed by a senior responsible and reliable officer.
  • Recruitment policy must be fair and flexible.
  • The selection of employees must be strictly in accordance with the merit.

The Selection Process for Officer Level Staff in Nepalese Organization

Although an effective recruitment programme can provide numerous job applications, there still remains a crucial problem of selection of the most suitable human resources with a view to placing them in vacant position in the enterprise. The selection procedure is concerned with securing relevant information about an applicant. The objective of selection process is to determine whether an applicant meets the qualification for a specific job and to choose the applicant who is most likely to perform well in that job. Selection means rejection of candidates for position can it is considered a negative process accordingly.

According to Dale Yoder, “Selection is the process in which candidates for employment are divided into two classes those who are to be offered employment and those are not. Selection means a process by which the qualified personnel may be chosen from the applicants offering their services to the organization for employment.”

Steps in Selection Procedure

The hiring procedures are not a single act but it is essentially a series of methods or steps or stages by which additional information are secured about the applicant. Selection processes or activities typically follow a standard pattern beginning with an initial screening interview and conducting with the final employment decision.

Although selection procedures changes from one organization to another in term of size, industry, location and scalar level or jobs are filled, the selection process depends upon effective job analysis and recruitment. According to Yoder, the selection process involves the following steps.

Step: I Preliminary Screening of Application: Selection procedure starts with the preliminary screening of the applications. The applicants are screened on the basis of standards set out by the organization.

Step: II Review of Application Blank: Application blank is a brief written resume of the name, age, address, education, occupation, interests, experience etc of the candidates. Through the application blank, the candidates provide the useful information to the employer in the areas of identification, education, experience, expected salaries, and community’s activities, reference etc. Application blank is an important stage in selection procedure. It provides basic information about the prospective employee, which is helpful at the time of interview. After screening application blank, promising candidates are called for further screening.

Step: III Checking Reference: At the end of the application blank, reference of two known persons or previous employers is given by the applicant. The various information give in the application blank can be verified with the help of reference. A reference is potentially on important source of information about the helps in verifying the accuracy of the applications and in getting the proper rating of the candidates’ skills and abilities.

Step: IV Physical Examinations (medical tests): It is an optional step in the selection procedure and depends mainly on the type of job to be done by the applicant. Some organizations ask for a certificate of physical fitness from a medical expert. Conducting of physical examination serves the following purposes.
  • It serves to protect the organization against unwarranted claims under the workman compensation act.
  • It helps to prevent the communicable disease entering the organization.
  • A proper medical examination ensures high standards of health and physical fitness of employees and will reduce the rates of accident, absenteeism and labour turnover.
  • It serves to ascertain whether the candidates are physically fit to perform the job.
Step: V Psychological Testing: Psychological test are devised to measure the psychological characteristics of individual applicants for a position. A psychological test is an objective and standard measure of a sample of human behavior. Psychological tests act on the principal that individuals differ from one another by degree. Some of the important psychological tests, which are used as follows:

  • Personality Tests: Designed to judge the emotional balance, maturity and temperamental qualities of a person.
  • Dexterity Tests: Measure an individual’s capacity to use his hands in industrial work.
  • Intelligence Tests: Measure the mental capacity of a person to graph and put together the elements of a novel or abstract situation.
  • Aptitude Tests: Measure the aptitude of applicants, which is their capacity to learn the skills, required on a particular job.
  • Achievement Tests: Measures the level of knowledge and proficiency in certain skills already achieved by the applicants.
The psychological tests serve the following purposes.
    • They provide a measurement of candidate ability, personality, aptitude, intelligence etc.
    • Test help to reduce employee turnover through a better fit between the candidates and the job.
    • Tests help to improve the accuracy and objectivity of the selection process.
The main problem with the psychological test are that they do not provide the clear picture of how well supplementary method of selection. The user of the test must be familiar with the limitations of the tests and he/ she should determine the effectiveness to the test before using them.

Step: VI Employment Interview: The purpose of employment interview is to find out the candidate’s mental and social makeup and to know the qualities possessed by him make him suitable for a job in the concern. It must be conducted in the friendly environment. The questions should better be asked on the basis of job specification. It is face-to-face communication and involves a brief personnel contact with the candidate to judge his suitability for the job.

Step: VII Final Approval: If the candidate successfully overcomes all the obstacles or tests given above, s/he is declared selected. An appointment letter is given to him mentioning the terms of appointment, pay scales, post on which selected tec.

Steps in selection procedure are not rigid. They may vary from organization to organization or in the some organization from job to job. The arrangements of the steps may also be disregarded or steps may be reduced or some other new steps may be added. This all depends upon the size of the enterprise, nature of the company and the nature of the job, job description and the objective of the organization.

Placement of Employees

After the selection of candidates, they are placed on the job. According to Pigors and Myers, placement should consist of matching what the supervisor has reason to think can do with the job demands, imposes (working conditions, degree of stress involved) and offers (in the form of pay, allowance, incentive, etc). Placement is the assignment of employees to jobs for which they generally decides the final placement after the initial training is over. Placement is the determination of the job to which determination of the job to which an accepted candidate is to be assigned and his assignment to that job. Generally, the employee is placed as a probationer and the probation period generally ranges between six months to one year until the trial period are over.

Advantages of using Selection Tests
  1. Organizations using or planning to use tests for selection should view the whole exercise as an economy of scale.
  2. Selection tests are quantifiable and they yield themselves to scientific and statistical analysis.
  3. Selection test uncover qualifications and talents that cannot be detected by interviews or by using education and job experience.
  4. Tests are standardized and unbiased tools. They can be administered to a group and to that extent they save on time and cost.

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