Organizational development is a long-range effort to improve an organization’s problem-solving and renewal processes, particularly through a more effective and collaborative management of organizational culture-with special emphasis on the culture of formal work teams-with the assistance of a change agent, or catalyst and the use of the theory and technology of applied behavior science, including action research. In other words, OD is a planned process of change in a organization’s culture through the utilization of behavioral science technology, research and theory. Hence, OD is the systematic application of behavioral science knowledge at various levels such as group, inter-group, organization etc. to bring about planned change.
The silent characteristics of OD are categorized into five steps.
First, OD is a systematic approach to planned change. It is a structured cycle of diagnosing organizational problems and opportunities and then applying expertise to them.
Second, OD is grounded in solid research and theory. It involves the application of our knowledge of behavioral science to the challenges that the organization face.
Third, OD recognized the reciprocal relationship between individuals and organizations. It acknowledges that for organizations to change, individuals must change.
Fourth, OD is goal oriented. It is a process that seeks to improve both individual and organizational well being and effectiveness.
Fifth, OD is designed to solve problems.
Approaches of OD The approaches of organizational development (OD) are:
1. Individual intervention
- Counseling and coaching: In the case of counseling the problems of the employees are discussed to do better in future. In case of coaching leader guides and directs the follower but not actually perform. Therefore, in both case consultation is given. So it the reason the employees know the alternative way of doing the job.
- Sensitivity training: Sensitivity training also known as T-groups (for training groups) or laboratory training or encounter groups is a methods by small face-to-face interaction experiences are used to give people insight into themselves. The concept of sensitivity training has evolved from the group dynamics concept of Kurt Lewin. The main objective of sensitivity training is to help individuals understand how they communicate, how their behavior affects others and how they are perceived by others.
- Survey feedback: In this method, the result of survey are discussed. The survey is taken for department or whole organization.
The major advantages of individual intervention approach are:
- The outcome of such training is to help employees understand others better, become aware of their own feeling and perceptions and improve communication.
- It provides more supportive behavior, more open and self understanding, improved communications, increased belongingness to the group, conflict reduction etc.
- Mangers have to take extra care of subordinates. It increases their time as well as orgnization’s expenses.
- There is a chance of low productivity from employees side.
a) Team buildings: First of all, team is built to discuss the problems. Team building starts from setting the objectives. Then, the performance of the team is evaluated. Then the role of the member is cleared. Ultimately the process is analyzed. And it increases the team effectiveness.
b) Process consolation: In this process, the outside consultant assist the team to perceive and understand the team effectiveness. So that consultant and the team can observe the process, which has to be improved.
c) Inter-group development: It helps in changing the perception and stereotype in the group. The main process of inter-group development can be used as the decision-making. The decision-making process and participation can improve the feeling of inter-group with warm relation.
- It deals with significant interpersonal problems prevailing in today’s organization.
- It helps the organizations and employees help themselves.
- It lays less stress on participant’s involvement.
- It is a long-term process, involving considerable commitment and cost.