Models for Managing Organizational change

Models for Managing Organizational change

Change is a necessary way of life in organization . Most organizations today are faced with tremendous forces for change stemming from different sources. A systematic and planned way of managing change successfully has become a primary responsibility of management, in this context, we have discussed different approaches that we would recommended for managing organizational change.

How to manage any change in organization is a difficult process. When organization makes any components, resistance from employee’s side comes up. To make the change successful, organization should manage it. There are different approaches to manage organizational change. On this matter, we consider the following models.

1. Kurt Lewin Model
Kurt Lewin argued that successful change in organizations should follow three steps. They are:

a) Unfreezing the status quo: Unfreezing means the change efforts to overcome the pressure of both individual resistance and group conformity. The status quo can be considered as the equilibrium state. Any employees who achieve the high status stick to it. He does not want to move from it. So, if any change organization wants to implement then employee resists that change due to the status quo. So, to implement the change successfully, organization unfreezes the status quo of the employee. This can be done through following ways:
  • Driving forces. 
  • Restraining forces and
  • Combination of both forces.
The driving force is that force which directs the behaviors of the employee from the status quo.

The Restraining is that force which hinders the movements from the status quo, changing behavior of employee through increasing their pay, if they accept the change, by counseling employee individually and by making temporary employee into permanent. Through this status quo can be unfreeze and change can be successfully implemented.
Fig. Unfreezing the Status Quo

b) Movement to a new status: Only unfreezing the status quo is not sufficient to manage the change. Now the employee who has changed their behavior from status quo should be moved to the new state to make the change stable. If they are not moved to the new state, they might freeze to the status quo. Thus, movement to the new state is another step to make the organizational change successful.

c) Refreezing the new change: Once the employee is moved to the new state, they should be retained in the new status, otherwise they may come back to the previous state and change may not be successful.

Thus, to retain them in the new state is very much essential to make change successful. To retain/ refreeze in the new state, temporary force should be systematically replaced with permanent ones. This builds up confidence in employee towards organization and will be socialized in the new environment. In this way, the change can be made successful in the organization.

2. Lippit, Watson and Westley’s Model
These three experts provides three factors which should be taken into account while introducing change viz, internal distribution of power; internal mobilization of energy; and external communication. Regarding interaction between internal system and external environment, they suggested correspondence between external and internal reality, goals and values for action and skills and strategy for action.

3. Daltons’ Model
This model of OC (Organizational Change) focuses four major phases and four specific sub-processes of learning. It highlights that the learning process for managers is highly complex. The process of learning incorporates establishment of new objectives, break of prior social ties, initial threat to self-esteem, increased self-confidence etc. To implement the change process properly, there should be proper distribution of power among managers.

4. Black, Mouton, Barnes and Grienier’s Model
This model of OC (Organizational Change) is based on managerial styles. It tries to change the organization to work under team management (i.e. 9x9 style = high concern for both people and task).

5. Argyris’ Model
The focus of this model is towards diagnosis of needs, attitudes, and feelings of the staff. The methods used for purpose of measuring above variables are interviews, design of survey and questionnaires. The data so collected are organized and discussed at a seminar. Then the training programs are organized for concerned staff after that revaluations of needs are done. Here, attempts are made to suggest some structured innovations which were implemented.

Meaning of Organizational Development

Meaning of Organizational Development
Organizational development is a long-range effort to improve an organization’s problem-solving and renewal processes, particularly through a more effective and collaborative management of organizational culture-with special emphasis on the culture of formal work teams-with the assistance of a change agent, or catalyst and the use of the theory and technology of applied behavior science, including action research. In other words, OD is a planned process of change in a organization’s culture through the utilization of behavioral science technology, research and theory. Hence, OD is the systematic application of behavioral science knowledge at various levels such as group, inter-group, organization etc. to bring about planned change.

The silent characteristics of OD are categorized into five steps.
First, OD is a systematic approach to planned change. It is a structured cycle of diagnosing organizational problems and opportunities and then applying expertise to them.

Second, OD is grounded in solid research and theory. It involves the application of our knowledge of behavioral science to the challenges that the organization face.

Third, OD recognized the reciprocal relationship between individuals and organizations. It acknowledges that for organizations to change, individuals must change.

Fourth, OD is goal oriented. It is a process that seeks to improve both individual and organizational well being and effectiveness.

Fifth, OD is designed to solve problems.

Approaches of OD The approaches of organizational development (OD) are:

1. Individual intervention
The objectives of this type so organizational development is to increase the ability and motivation of individual employees. This type of development include:
  • Counseling and coaching: In the case of counseling the problems of the employees are discussed to do better in future. In case of coaching leader guides and directs the follower but not actually perform. Therefore, in both case consultation is given. So it the reason the employees know the alternative way of doing the job. 
  • Sensitivity training: Sensitivity training also known as T-groups (for training groups) or laboratory training or encounter groups is a methods by small face-to-face interaction experiences are used to give people insight into themselves. The concept of sensitivity training has evolved from the group dynamics concept of Kurt Lewin. The main objective of sensitivity training is to help individuals understand how they communicate, how their behavior affects others and how they are perceived by others.
  • Survey feedback: In this method, the result of survey are discussed. The survey is taken for department or whole organization.
The major advantages of individual intervention approach are:
  • The outcome of such training is to help employees understand others better, become aware of their own feeling and perceptions and improve communication. 
  • It provides more supportive behavior, more open and self understanding, improved communications, increased belongingness to the group, conflict reduction etc.
  • Mangers have to take extra care of subordinates. It increases their time as well as orgnization’s expenses. 
  • There is a chance of low productivity from employees side.
 2. Process intervention
It helps in increasing the interaction skills. Therefore, includes the following techniques.
a) Team buildings: First of all, team is built to discuss the problems. Team building starts from setting the objectives. Then, the performance of the team is evaluated. Then the role of the member is cleared. Ultimately the process is analyzed. And it increases the team effectiveness.

b) Process consolation: In this process, the outside consultant assist the team to perceive and understand the team effectiveness. So that consultant and the team can observe the process, which has to be improved.

c) Inter-group development: It helps in changing the perception and stereotype in the group. The main process of inter-group development can be used as the decision-making. The decision-making process and participation can improve the feeling of inter-group with warm relation.

  • It deals with significant interpersonal problems prevailing in today’s organization. 
  • It helps the organizations and employees help themselves.
  • It lays less stress on participant’s involvement. 
  • It is a long-term process, involving considerable commitment and cost.

OD Interventions

An OD intervention is defined as, "the set of structured activities in which selected organizational units (target groups or individuals) engage with the task or a sequence of task where the task goals are related directly or indirectly to organizational improvements."

OD intervention is different from traditional intervention which focuses on content. OD intervention covers the whole organizational process. OD intervention focuses on work team and intends to change towards effective behavior. It relies on collaborative management of work culture.

Types of OD Interventions/ Techniques of Organizational Development
  1. Management by objectives (MBO): MBO emphasizes participation of individuals in setting goals. It is a systematic and organized approach that allows management to attain maximum results from available resources by focusing on achievable goals. It is a rational approach to management and helps prevent, management by crisis, fire fighting methods. The emphasis on joint goal setting and self control not only promotes individual development but also improves organizational effectiveness in the long run. 
  2. Team building: The focus of team building is the development of effective management teams. These work groups focus on solving actual problems in building effective management teams. The team leader defines a problem that demands organizational change. The group analyses the problem and traces out the causes of the problem. The problem arising from communication, leadership styles, organization structure etc. are high lighted here. There next step involved proposing alternative solutions and then selecting the most suitable one. Through the process, the participants are likely to be committed to the solution, interpersonal support and trust develops.
  3. Job enrichment: Job enrichment refers to basic changes in the content and level of responsibility of a job so as to provide for satisfaction of the motivation needs (achievements, recognition, responsibility, personal growth) of personnel. Jobs are made more challenging, meaningful and interesting. When applied initially, job enrichment programmes have increased employee productivity and job satisfaction and reduced the employee turnover and absenteeism.
  4. Managerial grid: Grid training developed by Black and Mouton, emphasizes the fact that most effective leadership style is that which stresses maximum concern for both production and people. It is a systematic approach for analyzing management styles and helps the organization in moving to the best cycle.
  5. Sensitivity training: (Called as psycho therapy or T group training). The general goal of sensitivity training is to develop awareness of and sensitivity to oneself and others. The training generally takes place under laboratory conditions. As small number of participants (12-15) sit together along with a trainer who (usually behavioral scientist) helps the participants in having an open and authentic communication with each other. The individual participant is made aware of his own behavior, how other perceives his behavior etc.
Besides these, there are other intervention strategies also like participants management process consultation, etc. OD is most successful when there is a deep commitment on the part of top management. Further OD should be viewed as a long term. Continuing programme rather than a short terms ‘short in the arm’ for the organizational unit.

Pre-requisites of OD (Organizational Behavior)

Organizational development does not emerge itself. There are some conditions, which must be accomplished as pre-requisites to OD are mentioned below:
  1. There should be the explicit commitment of the top management to change and improve the organization, denote its time and resources to this long term effort, take the risk and experiment, with new methods of handling the problems, be keen to assess its own behaviors and attitudes for personal development purpose, and be able to tolerate confusing results which may occur at the initial stages of the OD programme. Usually, we find that top executives suffer from the misconception that all is fine with them and it is lower level personnel who are to be trained and improved. This attitude towards subordinates hampers an effective OD programme. 
  2. The existence of strong and competent internal change facilitators and resourceful individuals, who can perform the role of internal change agents, provides momentum to the OD work.
  3. Successful experience with the earlier efforts in some parts of the organization provides momentum to further efforts and thus, forms a significant prerequisite, to the effective performance of an organizational development programme.
  4. The involvement of capable and experimented external consultants, especially during the earlier stages of OD work, provides the objectivity and variety of skills, which may make the programme highly effective. However, it is necessary that the consultant develop the internal change facilitators and the problem solving ability of the organization instead of making the organization dependent upon himself.
  5. The presence of some influential managers, who act as like link pins between crucial groups and are willing to introduce change and experiment with new methods of work, forms another prerequisite to a successful OD programme.
  6. The internationalization of concern for renewal, re-education, constant assessment of the organizational health and corporate excellence forms a very crucial prerequisite to effective OD effort.
  7. There is the prerequisite in the form of built-in reward systems. Attempts should be made to build the reward systems for the effective performance of results.

Organizational Development

Organizational development (OD) is the most significant, innovative, integrated process of achieving operational efficiency and effectiveness in organization. According to Bennis a pioneer in the field of OD is a response to change, a complex educational strategy intended to change, the beliefs, attitudes, values, structure of organizations so that they can better adopt to new technologies, market and challenges and decrying rate of change, itself. It is essentially a long-range effort to improve an organization's problem solving abilities and its ability to cope with change (i.e. internal as well as external). OD is a planned and calculated attempt to change the organization, typically to a more behavioral environment. It places high priority on humanistic values and goals. It is a way of looking at the whole human side of organization life.

Objectives and Goals of Organizational Development
A typical OD programme has the following objectives and goals.
  1. To increase the level of interpersonal trust among employees.
  2. To increase employee's level of satisfaction and commitment.
  3. To increase openness of communications.
  4. To confront problems instead of sweeping them under the rug?
  5. To effectively manage conflict.
  6. To increase co-operative and collaboration among employee.
  7. To improve the organization's problem solving and self-renewal capabilities.
1. Increase the levels of interpersonal trust among employees: The main objective of OD effort is the improvement in internal potentialities. OD with its strategy brings out that potentialities and use it to gain competitive advantages. This benefits both the organization and employee.

2. Development of more effective team management:
Teamwork is more effective than individual work. Complex task becomes simple with team spirit. A self-managed team increases the effectiveness of the organization. Thus, OD puts its effort for the development of effective team management.

3. To effectively managed conflict:
OD helps in the development of better method of conflict resolution instead of usual bureaucratic methods. It adopts the techniques like face-to-face communication, participation methods to handle the conflict.

4. To increase co-operation and collaboration among employees:
All the OD techniques are built on humanistic democratic values. It value human more. It does not equalize human with machinery component it treats employee as the living resources.

5. Openness of communications:
Miss-communication is the source of conflict. Close communication is the barriers for development. To remove conflict and to support idea exchange, innovation and creation, required OD welcomes the open communication pattern. Open communication facilities the flow of idea and information is in the organization that is fruitful for OD.

Meaning of Conflict

Conflict has been defined from several stand points in literature. In one approach, it has been related with tension and defined as expression of hostility, negative attitude, antagonism, misunderstanding, aggression, rivalry, stereotypes, etc. In political science and economics, it has been associated with situations, bodying contradictory or irreconcilable interest between two opposing groups. Conflict is also considered a special kind of competition and as a break down, delay and difficulty in the decision making process. In general, conflict has been defined as a process in which an individual purposefully makes a concerted effort to offset the efforts of another individual by some form of blockage that causes frustration to the better in accomplishing his goals or furtherance of his interests. 

Positive Outcomes of Conflict 
More often conflict leads to certain positive outcomes. A few of them are: 
  • It provides an individual a chance to think again, undertake self introspection and have a second look at the existing things, be they procedures, policies, equipment, behaviors etc. 
  • It leads to innovation and at times, to new direction. It is therefore, even necessary for organization survival and growth. 
  • It helps to seek classification and generate search behavior. 
  • At times, it is also used as a means to certain ends and to create confusion or set subordinates against each other in order to maintain the interested party's own position. It may not be a positive outcome in the strict sense of the term from the organizational point of view, but it is certainly a management strategy toward off problems temporarily. It may be viewed as an unavoidable cost of the pursuit of one's aspirations. 
  • When conflict is developed, attention is immediately drawn to the malfunctioning parts of a system. It is an indication that the situation calls for improvement. Conflict is, therefore, an essential portion of a cyber-native system. 
  • Long standing problems which continue to agitate people's minds surface. They are able to release their tensions and unburden themselves. They display creativity in identifying solutions and problems are dealt with. 
  • It energies people, leads to mild stimulation and one is at one's best in times of crisis. It helps them test their capacities. 
  • It serves as a cementing force in a group and incredible unity is witnessed even in a heterogeneous group in times of tension. 
  • For some, it is exhilarating, provides endless challenge and meaning to their lines. 
Negative Side of Conflict 
Many times conflicts may be detrimental and disasters. A few of such circumstances in which it can be termed as harmful and undesirable as discussed below: 
  • When conflict does not lead to solution of a problem, it is unproductive and investment of time and effort goes waste. 
  • It is undesirable if it creates a climate of distrust and suspicion among people, if some people feel defeated and if it develops antagonism instead of a spirit of cooperation. 
  • It is seriously harmful if it detracts attention from basic organizational objectives and makes people make work for their defeat. 
  • As a consequence of conflict, there may be flight of personnel from the organization. 
  • When management loses objectivity and treats disagreement as equivalent to disloyalty and rebellion, an opportunity for creativity should be deemed to have been lost. It may even pour oil over troubled waters, exploit difference to strengthen itself and weaken other, and accept resolutions capable of different interpretations. 
  • In an attempt to find a solution, management may gloss over serious difference and suppress certain feelings which may except at inappropriate moments and hit safe targets. 
  • In the event of a conflict, there may be intensification of internalization of sub unit goals which may result in the neglects of overall organizational goals.

Concept of Transactional Analysis

When people interact in assertive or non-assertive ways, there is a social transaction in which one person responds to another. The study of these social analyses was developed by Eric Berne for psychotherapy in 1950s. The objective of transactional analysis is to provide better understanding of how people relate to each other, so that they may develop improved communication and human relationships. The basic tenet of transactional analysis is that each one of us operates from three ego states and there are compatible and incompatible messages that we send to each other from time to time. By analyzing the messages, we will be able to engage in more fruitful and effective pattern. 

Types of Transactions 
1. Complementary Transactions: Transactions are complementary when the ego stages of the sender and the receiver in the opening transaction are simply reversed in the response. When the pattern between ego states is charted, the lines are parallel. Following figure shows the relationship. 
Complementary TransactionS = Stimulus
R= Response
The above figure shows that the supervisor speaks to and employee as parent to child and the employee respond as child to parent. 
It is superior initiates in a parent to child pattern, the employees tend to respond from a child state. Unfortunately, a superior subordinate relationship tends to lead to parent child transaction, especially when instruction given or appraisals are conducted. If the superior's behavior is dominated by this pattern, it may lead to reduced interpersonal and group effectiveness. 

2. Non- complementary or crossed transaction: Occur when the stimulus and response line are not parallel i.e. in this, the supervisor tries to deal with the employee on and adult to adult basis, but the employee responds on a child to parent basis. The important point is that when the crossed transaction occurs, communication tends to be blocked and a satisfactory transaction is not accomplished. Conflict often follows soon afterwards. In general, the transaction that is likely to be most effective at work is that of adult to adult. This kind of transaction encourages problem solving, treats people at reasonably equals and reduces the probability of emotional conflicts between people.
Non-Complementary Transaction
S= Stimulus
R= Response

Nature and Sources of Conflicts

Conflict can arise from a variety of sources. They can be classified into two broad categories: Structural factors, which stem from the nature of the organization and the way in which work is organized and Personal factors, which arise from differences among individuals. The causes/ sources of conflict can be summarized with two categories.

1. Structural Factors
  • Specialization: When jobs are highly specialized, employees become experts at certain tasks. For example in case of a software company, while there is one specialist for databases, another for statistical packages, and yet another for expert systems. As the highly specialized people have little awareness of the tasks that others perform, such a case leads to conflict among the specialists. 
  • Interdependence: Interdependence occurs when two or more groups depend on each other to accomplish their tasks. Depending on other people to work done is good when the process works smoothly. However, when problem arise, it becomes easy to blame other party, and as such, conflict escalates. The potential of conflict increases as the degree of interdependence increases. 
  • Goal Differences: Sometimes different work groups having different goals have incompatible goals. For example, in a cable television company, the sales person's goal was to sell as many new installations as possible. This created problem for the service department, because its goal was timely installations.
  • Jurisdictional Ambiguities: It refers to the presence of unclear lines of responsibility within an organization. Recall, we have contacted our own college administration for some problem and we have been asked to go to different people and departments? This happens because of the jurisdictional ambiguities among the departments. 
2. Personal Factors
  • Skills and Abilities: Work force in an organization/ department is composed of people with varying levels of skills and abilities. Such diversity in skills and abilities leads to conflict, especially when jobs are interdependent. Workers may find it difficult to work with a new boss, fresh from University knowing a lot about managing people but unfamiliar with the technology they are working. 
  • Personalities: Personality also causes individual differences. It is differences in personality that neither the manager likes all of his co-managers and subordinates nor all of them like the manager. This creates conflict among them. Research studies report that usually an abrasive personality is rejected by others. An abrasive person is one who ignores the interpersonal aspects of work and feelings of colleagues. 
  • Perception: Like personality, differences in perceptions can also lead to conflict. One are in which perceptions can, for example, differ may be the perception of what motivates employees. Managers, for example, usually provide what they think employees want rather than what employees really want.
  • Values and Ethics: People also hold different beliefs and adhere to different value system. Older workers, for example, value company loyalty and probably would not take a sick day when they were not really sick/ ill. But, the younger workers, valuing mobility, may be taken a sick day to get away from work. 
  • Emotion: The moods of the people can also be a source of conflict in the work place. Problems of home often spill over into the work arena, and the related moods can be hard for others to deal with.
  • Communication barriers: Communication barriers such as physical separation and language can create distortions in messages, and these, in turn, can lead to conflict. Value judgment also sometimes serves as barrier.

Suggestion for Effective Management of Conflict

From the previous technique, what picture can be drawn out is that conflicts are solved by the groups. Manager has to play key role on managing every conflict. It conflict goes out of his/her hand, it brings many negative consequences in the attainment of the goal. So the rational manager's duty is first identify the sources of conflict, diagnosis it and use different technique depending upon the nature and size of conflict to manage it.

Among different approaches of conflict management, I think avoiding approach is the most effective for managing conflict.

Avoiding: Avoiding is a style low on both assertiveness and cooperativeness. Avoiding is a deliberate decision to sidestep a conflict issue, postpone addressing it till later or withdraw from a conflicting situation. In certain situations, it may be appropriate to avoid a conflict. For example, when parties are much angry and need time to cool down, it may be best to use avoidance. Avoiding conflict can be very functional when the issue involved in the conflict is trivial. However, research shows that overuse of this style results in negative evaluations from others in the workplace. Here is an example of the avoiding style of conflict management in use.

The head of a large MNC stayed regularity in a posh five star hotel in Kathmandu. On one such trip, he forgot to remove the "Do Not Disturb" sign from his door when he left for work in the morning. He came back late at night to find his room as he had left it: the sheets unchanged, the breakfast tray still there, and the room unswept. The sign on the door was intact.

His reaction: He charged down to the reception, sign in hand, and proceeded to scream the hotel down. When the receptionist said that they were merely following his instructions, he got even more agitated, saying that he could have died in his room, and nobody would have disturbed him.

The situation was rapidly spiraling of control, when the hotel's General Manager stepped in. within minutes, he has pacified the charged executive apologizing profusely instead of arguing with him. He then put him in a better room till his room was made up, and sent him dinner. Suitably mollified, the guest was soon tucking into his food all anger forgotten, and the staff heaved a sigh of relief.

Conflict Management

Conflict has been defined from several stand points in literature. In one approach, it has been related with tension and defined as expression of hostility, negative attitude, antagonism, misunderstanding, aggression, rivalry, stereotypes, etc. In political science and economics, it has been associated with situations, bodying contradictory or irreconcilable interest between two opposing groups. Conflict is also considered a special kind of competition and as a break down, delay and difficulty in the decision making process. In general, conflict has been defined as a process in which an individual purposefully makes a concerted effort to offset the efforts of another individual by some form of blockage that causes frustration to the better in accomplishing his goals or furtherance of his interests.

Approaches to Conflict Management
Conflict arises from different sources. It is inevitable to avoid conflict in organizational setting. So with appropriate technique, conflict should be managed. There are different approaches to manage conflict. But in management literature, the highly adopted approaches are as follows:
  1. Dominance: This is the easiest technique to manage conflict. In this technique, manager will eliminate the conflicting parties. By dismissing the conflicting parties the conflict can be managed. But this is a short-term solution not a long term.
  2. Avoidance: Conflict can be managed by avoiding it. In this technique one party avoids the conflict and let the conflicting parties to win. Moreover, redefining the goals and not making over-lapping of goals can also manage conflict.
  3. Smoothing: In this technique, the differences between two parties are disguised while similarities are highlighted. This make the other party feel that they are not much a part from each other. This shared viewpoint enhances the possibility of working together for common goals. However smoothing, it is a temporary solution only.
  4. Compromise: In this technique, the conflicting parties' compromise with each other on certain points and conflict is resolved. The party provides something else to other parties in exchange for the desired outcomes. But this is also a temporary solution. If the desired outcome is not achieved, conflict again arises.
  5. Hierarchical decision-making: In this technique, a common superior can be requested to use his authority to resolve conflict through a proper decision. However, it is very widely accepted technique but it loses its goodness when the authority figure fails to understand the issue properly and the subordinates do not respect them.
  6. System restructuring: Sometime, by restructuring system, conflict can be managed in the organization, system restructuring technique involves the clarifying demands and segregating roles in different position, and people can resolve role conflict.
  7. Problem solving: In this technique, problem is solved through face-to-face confrontation and tries to accomplish the common interest of the parties in conflict. In this technique, area of common interest is identified and information's views are shared and effort is made to achieve mutual common interest. However this technique is effective to remove misunderstanding among the parties but it is time consuming technique.
  8. Bargaining: In this technique, parties in conflict bargain each other to solve the conflict. Here the use of bargaining power is highly used.

Groups in conflict Behave

Organizations are composed of individual and groups. Organization being a system, both individuals and groups cannot remain independent but dependent on each other. Conflict arises out of inconsistency. Inconsistency in different matters among groups in an organization creates inter-group conflicts. One union vs. another union, one functional groups like production vs. another functional group like marketing are the examples of group conflicts or inter-group conflicts. The inter-group conflicts usually arise when (i) there is a felt need among groups for a joint decision making (ii) there is differentiation in goals of the groups and (iii) there is differentiation in perceptions of reality by the groups.
Strategies for Managing Inter-Group Conflict
During inter-group conflict, the following strategies can be used.
  1. Contracting: An agreement is negotiated between two groups. It is of "quid pro quo" (this for that) nature. Each group makes some concessions.
  2. Co-opting: One group give some of its leadership positions to members of other group or includes them as committee members. Bank representatives and client company's board of directors is an example of co-opting.
  3. Coalition forming: Two or more group cooperative or combine resources. Member groups cooperate with each other to compete with non-member groups.
  4. Influencing decision criteria: Groups influence the criteria selected for resource allocation. Such criterion is advantages to such groups.
  5. Information control: Group exerts control on important information. Gaining exclusive accesses to sensitive information increase power.
  6. Pressure tactics: Groups uses pressure tactics to force other groups to give in. For example, unions threaten strike and management threatens lock-out as pressure tactics.