Change is a necessary way of life in organization . Most organizations today are faced with tremendous forces for change stemming from different sources. A systematic and planned way of managing change successfully has become a primary responsibility of management, in this context, we have discussed different approaches that we would recommended for managing organizational change.
How to manage any change in organization is a difficult process. When organization makes any components, resistance from employee’s side comes up. To make the change successful, organization should manage it. There are different approaches to manage organizational change. On this matter, we consider the following models.
1. Kurt Lewin Model
Kurt Lewin argued that successful change in organizations should follow three steps. They are:
a) Unfreezing the status quo: Unfreezing means the change efforts to overcome the pressure of both individual resistance and group conformity. The status quo can be considered as the equilibrium state. Any employees who achieve the high status stick to it. He does not want to move from it. So, if any change organization wants to implement then employee resists that change due to the status quo. So, to implement the change successfully, organization unfreezes the status quo of the employee. This can be done through following ways:
- Driving forces.
- Restraining forces and
- Combination of both forces.
The Restraining is that force which hinders the movements from the status quo, changing behavior of employee through increasing their pay, if they accept the change, by counseling employee individually and by making temporary employee into permanent. Through this status quo can be unfreeze and change can be successfully implemented.
|Fig. Unfreezing the Status Quo|
b) Movement to a new status: Only unfreezing the status quo is not sufficient to manage the change. Now the employee who has changed their behavior from status quo should be moved to the new state to make the change stable. If they are not moved to the new state, they might freeze to the status quo. Thus, movement to the new state is another step to make the organizational change successful.
c) Refreezing the new change: Once the employee is moved to the new state, they should be retained in the new status, otherwise they may come back to the previous state and change may not be successful.
|Thus, to retain them in the new state is very much essential to make change successful. To retain/ refreeze in the new state, temporary force should be systematically replaced with permanent ones. This builds up confidence in employee towards organization and will be socialized in the new environment. In this way, the change can be made successful in the organization.|
2. Lippit, Watson and Westley’s Model
These three experts provides three factors which should be taken into account while introducing change viz, internal distribution of power; internal mobilization of energy; and external communication. Regarding interaction between internal system and external environment, they suggested correspondence between external and internal reality, goals and values for action and skills and strategy for action.
3. Daltons’ Model
This model of OC (Organizational Change) focuses four major phases and four specific sub-processes of learning. It highlights that the learning process for managers is highly complex. The process of learning incorporates establishment of new objectives, break of prior social ties, initial threat to self-esteem, increased self-confidence etc. To implement the change process properly, there should be proper distribution of power among managers.
4. Black, Mouton, Barnes and Grienier’s Model
This model of OC (Organizational Change) is based on managerial styles. It tries to change the organization to work under team management (i.e. 9x9 style = high concern for both people and task).
5. Argyris’ Model
The focus of this model is towards diagnosis of needs, attitudes, and feelings of the staff. The methods used for purpose of measuring above variables are interviews, design of survey and questionnaires. The data so collected are organized and discussed at a seminar. Then the training programs are organized for concerned staff after that revaluations of needs are done. Here, attempts are made to suggest some structured innovations which were implemented.