Bureaucracy: Theoretical Perspective

Bureaucracy: Concept

The term Bureaucracy is derived from the French word Bureau and Cracy. Bureau means desks with drawers and Cracy means the government. Martin Albrow has traced the term “Bureaucracy” back to 1745, when Vincent de Gournay, a French physiocrat, used it to describe the Prussian government. In the eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries, the term was used to describe the type of government in which power resided with officials. The term was used as an additional Aristotle’s typology of governments. Aristotle noted three true forms of government Kingly rule, Aristocracy and constitutional government and three perversions of the true forms – Tyranny, oligarchy and democracy. Bureaucracy was used to represent a forth type of perversion of government.

Scientific Management Theory

Fredric W. Taylor (1856-1915) was a mechanical engineer. He joined the Midvale Steel, works as a laborer and rose rapidly to Foreman and later chief engineer. He was afterward employed at Bethlehem Steel, works as a consultant and devoted to the propagation of his idea.

Theoretical View for Scientific Management

To find out the best way of doing things was the essence of the movement knows as scientific management. The central tenets of their approach is that if material rewards are closely related to work effort, the worker will respond with maximum performance if he is physically capable of Taylor essentially paid attention to the physical character of the human body in routine job in using hammer, pick up loads. Eventually Taylor come to view human and machine resources as complementary to one another. Motivation, division of work, responsibility, good salary, time and motion study are the