Behavior as Input-Output System

People are considered as the "spinal cord" of every organization. Managers of every organization must be familiar about behavior of people. Understanding an individual behavior is a very difficult task. Therefore behavior can be observed as input-output system.

The Inputs: Stimuli form the inputs for the system and the information getting process or function is the sensation. The event data from the environment are received and transformed to sensations by sense organs of vision, audition, smell, taste, those on the inner ear and muscles.

The processing: Something happens to the inputs as soon as they are sent to central processing unit i.e. nervous system by the receptors. Perception of the situation, thinking, reasoning or problem-solving occurs. A choice between alternatives is made and decision is taken.

The Outputs: Outputs are the behavioral response of individual. It is caused by inputs and processing components of the individual behavior. The situations in which outputs occur largely influence the working of the system as a whole. These situations may include environmental factors which affect, the psycho-motor process.

Biological Foundation of Behavior
The general biological characteristics of human system, especially as laid down in heredity and revealed during the subsequent period of development of the individual, influence the ways in which he or she tends to sense external event data, interpret them, respond to them and learn from his/her own past experiences.

The individual inherits a similarity to other individuals as well as uniqueness in the form of genes and chromosomes. In addition, he or she inherits and physical traits and the ability to learn and behave intellectually, which a wide impact on his/her behavioral patterns.

The childhood sensory and perceptual experience contributes a lot towards the maturity of the sensory and perceptual abilities. The growth of the individual is markedly influenced by the functioning of the ductless glands including the pituitary, the thyroid, the adrenals and the gonads.

The structure of the nervous system plays a significant role in bringing together the human behavior and personality. Integration of human behavior takes place because of the constraint functioning of receptors, effectors and connectors. The human behavior ranges from the simple reflex action to the complex problem-solving activity involving various levels of integration.

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