Scope of Behavioral Approach
- Structural: Making the job more interesting, giving the employee more responsibility. Decreasing control from above.
- Behavioral: Behavior is a manner of acting. It refers to a person’s conduct in carrying out specified activities. Providing more job status. Giving the employee a chance to make decision. Allowing him to assist in leading others.
- Communication: Listening to his problems seriously. Helping him to interact with his fellow workers. Dealing with him openly.
- Methodology: The behavioral science approach involves the use of social and psychological concepts and knowledge to influence, motivate and coordinate the human element in achieving performance in the work place. For example, a manner might do the following to get an employee to prefer a task.
- Personality: Personality of a human being is a complex combination physical and mental attributes, values, attitudes, beliefs, tastes, ambition, interest and habit.
- Influence: Set an example, make suggestion.
- Motivation: Use praise, offer promotion.
- Coordinate: Provide formal instruction, offer assistance.
Purpose/ Objectives of Behavioral Approach
Pre-requisites or Characteristics of Behavioral Approach
- Groups are inevitable and ubiquitous (present everywhere and every time).
- Groups mobilize powerful forces that produce effects of almost importance to individuals.
- Groups may produce good or bad consequences from groups can be deliberately enhanced.
Features of Behavioral Approach
- Behavioral approach seeks to focus directly on the actual behavior of individuals and groups in administrative organizations. It concentrates on the study of the various factors that influence the behavior of the people within organization.
- The behaviorists characterize the organization as social system. As a social system, an organization consists of the formal structure, individuals (part of the society), groups and the informal interpersonal and inter-group relationships. They therefore, lay emphasis on the study of the informal social organization that always develops with the framework of the formal organization.
- The behaviorists conceive of administration as a study embracing many discipline, especially sociology and psychology, social and industrial psychology and anthropology. They employ the methods and techniques of the above mentioned social sciences with a view to understand the way people really act within the organization.
- The major areas of study in which the behaviorist are interested include the role of the individual, leadership in organization, group dynamics, organizational equilibrium and organization as a social system, motivation and satisfaction.
- Behavioral approach is descriptive and factual and therefore empirical. It aims at increasing the scientific content of the study of public administration. It has shifted the emphasis from formal legal administrative structures to the people and their behavior in administrative organization. In other words, it has revealed the truth that the conduct of administration is greatly influenced by human sentiments, perception and the environment in which administration operates. It may be noted that behavioral approach and classical approach are complementary rather than contradictory. Administration is both structure and the people working in it.