Participative Management in Public Administration

Rensis Likert is an American Social Psychologist born in 1903 and obtained PhD. in 1932 from Columbia University. Likert believed that the body of knowledge of social science could pave the way to frame a generalized theory of organization and management. He raised a question that why do some managers get better results than others? What do effective managers do that waste time, money foolishly that was dissipative manager do not? How can we measure effectiveness of manager? etc. Likert classifies supervisors in two categories.
  1. Job Centered
  2. Employee Centered

Human Relation Approach

The study of human relations in management or administration is the study of worker’s relation with their job, leader and organization. George Elton Mayo (December 26, 1880 – September 7, 1949) was an Australian who spend most of his working life at Harvard University, eventually becoming prof. of industrial research in the Graduate School of Business Administration. In this post, he was responsible for the initiation and direction of many research projects, the most famous being the five year investigation of the Hawthorne works of the Western Electric Company in Chicago.

According to the investigation;
  • First, Employees is the starting point until the employee is brought into the work environment, nothing happens.
  • Second, the work environment is the central focus. The work environment is made up of the job, a worker has the leader who supervises the worker and other factors in the organization.

Behavioral Approach

Behavioral Approach is the most important approach in the study of management and administration that has emerged during 20th century. The group which has the greatest influence in the growth and development of this new field, consisted of Chester Brrnard, J. G. March, Herbert Simon, Douglas McGregor, Abraham Maslow, Rensis Likert, Warren Bennis, etc. Behaviorist’s empirical investigation based on systematic and detailed observation in organizations supported by findings of social sciences of human behavior, provided the basis for building uniformities and concepts, which could be utilized by managers for improved practises, instead of relying on personal experience which was often based on insufficient foundation in fact.

Bureaucracy: Theoretical Perspective

Bureaucracy: Concept

The term Bureaucracy is derived from the French word Bureau and Cracy. Bureau means desks with drawers and Cracy means the government. Martin Albrow has traced the term “Bureaucracy” back to 1745, when Vincent de Gournay, a French physiocrat, used it to describe the Prussian government. In the eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries, the term was used to describe the type of government in which power resided with officials. The term was used as an additional Aristotle’s typology of governments. Aristotle noted three true forms of government Kingly rule, Aristocracy and constitutional government and three perversions of the true forms – Tyranny, oligarchy and democracy. Bureaucracy was used to represent a forth type of perversion of government.

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