In the Stone Age society, people stayed much the same for thousands of years, in the middle age, for a few hundred years, in the industrial revolution for ten or twenty years. But today, it is seen significant changes in our society brought about by technological advancement, social alternations, economic influences and political pressures. Since change is inevitable, change may assume a variety of forms, each with its unique problems. The new organizations of post-industrial society will be temporary which will emerged adoptive, rapidly changing, ad-hoc structure manned by members of techno-structure who owe allegiance not to the company but to the professional association. We find mob-centric managers who is in tune with high mobility between organizations to organizations. Change itself is a fact of life but it may be difficult to or edict its direction and intensity (depth) besides, there are too many forces at work to enable us to make prediction that the major changes going on in our society and then attempt to interpret with the knowledge that this is surely a many endeavor.
Rensis Likert is an American Social Psychologist born in 1903 and obtained PhD. in 1932 from Columbia University. Likert believed that the body of knowledge of social science could pave the way to frame a generalized theory of organization and management. He raised a question that why do some managers get better results than others? What do effective managers do that waste time, money foolishly that was dissipative manager do not? How can we measure effectiveness of manager? etc. Likert classifies supervisors in two categories.
- Job Centered
- Employee Centered
The study of human relations in management or administration is the study of worker’s relation with their job, leader and organization. George Elton Mayo (December 26, 1880 – September 7, 1949) was an Australian who spend most of his working life at Harvard University, eventually becoming prof. of industrial research in the Graduate School of Business Administration. In this post, he was responsible for the initiation and direction of many research projects, the most famous being the five year investigation of the Hawthorne works of the Western Electric Company in Chicago.
According to the investigation;
- First, Employees is the starting point until the employee is brought into the work environment, nothing happens.
- Second, the work environment is the central focus. The work environment is made up of the job, a worker has the leader who supervises the worker and other factors in the organization.
Related keywords Human Relation Approach
Behavioral Approach is the most important approach in the study of management and administration that has emerged during 20th century. The group which has the greatest influence in the growth and development of this new field, consisted of Chester Brrnard, J. G. March, Herbert Simon, Douglas McGregor, Abraham Maslow, Rensis Likert, Warren Bennis, etc. Behaviorist’s empirical investigation based on systematic and detailed observation in organizations supported by findings of social sciences of human behavior, provided the basis for building uniformities and concepts, which could be utilized by managers for improved practises, instead of relying on personal experience which was often based on insufficient foundation in fact.
Related keywords Behavioral Approach