- They exert heavy pressure to get work done.
- They have little confidence in the subordinates.
- They exercise close and detail supervision.
- They allow little freedom to subordinates.
- They are punitive and critical when mistake occur.
- Group Dynamics
- Democratic or Participative
- Mass sharing of benefit of development
- Mass participation in decision making process
- Mass contribution to the development
- They exert little pressure on subordinates.
- They earn and get the confidence and trust of their subordinates.
- They increase the achievement motivation of subordinates and encourage them to accept high performance goals through decision process.
- They exercise general rather than detail supervision, and allow subordinates to schedule their own pace of work.
- They help subordinates when they commit mistakes and problem occur.
Pre-requisites for Participative Management
- The member of the organizations will perform the best, when they are given the opportunities in making decision that affect them (will increase willingness).
- Naked exercise of blunt power by organizational officials is not acceptable. Several heads are better than one for decision making.
- There are a large often untapped reservoir of talent, knowledge, skill and ideas among the members of organization that will be realized when the member becomes actively involved in decision making process.
- Productivity and self-motivation can be enhanced through the identification and recognition of the employees.
- Employees are motivated by participation in setting goals, achieving improved standard (working methods and results) and appraising progress.
- A great deal of communication supporting environment and spirit of cooperation between and among employees constitute basic foundations that help develop confidence and trust in the working environment.
- It makes employees conscious, active and responsible in respect to their role.
Flat Organizational Structure of Participative Management Model
|Rensis Likert's Linking Pin Model|
- The Honey Report on higher education for public service 1967.
- The Philadelphia conference on the theory and practice of public administration 1967.
- The Minnowbrook Conference 1968.
- The Minnowbrook Conference 1988.
- The scope of the study of the subject should be broader and lined with governmental processes. He was of the opinion that at present there was a wide gap between the scholars of public administration and practicing administrators.
- Insufficiency of resources at the disposal of scholars of public administration (students, faculty and research).
- The public administration departments were inadequate and that the discipline was not clear (is it a discipline, a science or profession?)
- It is just as difficult to delineate the scope of public administration, as it is to define it.
- The policy-administration dichotomy is erroneous.
- Bureaucracy should be studied structurally and functionally.
- Public administration and business administration training should not be combined.
- Public administration has not been able to deal with societal problems, and as a discipline. It should remain separate from discipline of political science.
- Policy and political considerations are replacing management concern, future administrators should be trained in professional schools, and superior subordinates all should be commodore as co-ordinates.
- Public administration course should emphasis on interdisciplinary approach.
- Policy Issues: The field has shifted focus in significant measure from management of agencies to policy issues. The public policy approach to public management has flourished and is has had a significant effect on the quality of government. (Management oriented public administration studies was found in adequate)
- Social Equity: Social equity has been added to efficiency and economy as the rationale or justification of policy positions. Distribution function and impact of governmental institutions should be public administration’s basic concern.
- Ethics, Honesty and Responsibility: Government have returned again to the lexicon (dictionary of language vocabulary) of public administration. Career service bureaucrats are no longer considered to be merely implementer of fixed decision as they were in the dominant theory of the late 50s and early 60s. They are now understood to hold a public trust to provide the best possible public service with costs and benefits being fairly distributed among the people.
- Cutback Management: To terminate an unneeded or ineffective organization or program is now accepted as an especially honorable administrative responsibility. An extensive literature on cutback management has developed, changed, not growth has come to be understood the more critical theoretical issue. Managing change, not just growth, is the standard for effectiveness.
- New orientation towards hierarchy: To eliminate the lengthy process of decision making and to ensure timely implementation of decision re-thinking towards the usefulness of the strict concept of hierarchy need to be considered taking into account the prevailing situation.
- Pluralism: Plural society is that society where the existence of various groups, interest and parties are well reorganized in the conduct of public affairs.