Theoretical View for Scientific Management
main contribution of the Taylor.
- The two hands should begin and complete their motion simultaneously.
- Smooth, continuous motion of hands are preferable to zigzags or straight line motion involving sudden and sharp changes in direction.
- Proper illumination increases productivity.
- There should be a definite and fixed place for all the tools and materials. (Taylor wanted the worker to be paid weekly if not daily).
- Management had no clear understanding of worker’s management responsibilities.
- Lack of effective standard of work.
- Failure of management to design jobs properly and to offer the proper incentives to worker.
- Most decisions of the management were unscientific as they were based on hunch (idea not based on evidence), intention and past experience.
- Placement of worker without consideration of their ability, aptitude (natural ability) and interests.
- Science – Not rule of thumb
- Harmony – Not discord (disagreement or quarreling)
- Co-operation – Not individualism
- Maximum output – In place of restricted output
Criticism or intellectual exercise (Art of making judgment on literature)
- The trade union were against the modern methods of increasing outputs. The labor leader considered Taylorism as not only destroying trade unionism but also destroying the principle of collective bargaining and creating employment.
- Taylorism was also often attacked by the mangers. Those who wanted quick promotion to the high managerial position without any merit based on higher education opposed Taylor’s stand, which advocated tanning by highly trained experts. Taylor had to resign from both Midvale Steel works and Bethlehem Steel because of friction with the company managers.
- Among others who criticized Taylor include Oliver Sheldon, Miss Marry Parker Follett, Elton Mayo, Peter Drucker and others. They changed that Taylor’s scientific management was mechanical, impersonal and under emphasized the human factor.
- Behaviorist charged that Taylor’s method of scientific management sacrifices the initiatives of the worker, his individual freedom and the use of his intelligence and responsibility.
- Herbert A. Simon and March have described the scientific management as the physiological organist theory.