- Systematic training mechanism: Systematic training is a training which is specifically designed to meet defined needs. It is planned and provided by people who know how to train, and the impact of training is carefully evaluated. Systematic training is carefully evaluated. Systematic training is based on a simple four-stage model expressed as follows:
- Defined training needs
- Decide what sort of training is required to satisfy these needs.
- Use experienced and trained trainers to plan and implement training.
- Follow up and evaluation to ensure that is effective.
- Planned training mechanism: Planned training as defined by Kenney and Reid (1988) is a deliberate intervention aimed at achieving the learning necessary for improved job performance. The process of planned training consists of the following steps.
- Identify and define training needs: This involves analyzing corporate, team, occupational and individual needs to acquire new skills or knowledge or to improve existing competencies (competence is defined as the ability and willingness to perform a task). The analysis method at this stage on the extent to which training is the best and most cost effective way to solve the problem.
- Define the learning required: It is necessary to specify as clearly as possible what skills and knowledge have to be learnt, and what attitudes need to be developed.
- Define the objectives of training: Learning objectives are set which defines not only what has to be learnt, but also what trainees must be able to do after their training programs.
- Implement the training: Ensue that the most appropriate methods are used.
- Continuing development mechanism: Training has to be planned properly, but a philosophy of continuing development states that training is not just something, which is provided for people by the organization at the start of their employment or at occasional points in their career. It should instead be regarded as a continuing process, with less emphasis on formal instruction and an increased requirement for trainees to be responsible for their own learning, with help and guidance from their managers. The learning activity in an organization is to be fully beneficial both to the organization and its employees, the following conditions must be met.
- The organization must have some form of strategic business. It is desirable that the implications of the strategic plan, in terms of the skills and knowledge of the employees. Who will achieve it? It should be spelled out.
- Managers must be ready and willing to define and meet needs as they appear. All learning needs cannot be anticipated: organizations must faster a philosophy of continuous development.
- As for as practicable, learning and work must be integrated. This means that encouragement must be given to all employees to learn from the problems, challenges and successes inherent in their day-to-day activities.
- Performance related training approach: A performance related approach to training relates training specifically to performance requirements. For individuals this may mean filling gaps between what they know and can do and what they should know and be able to do. But concentrating on filling gaps may mean falling into the trap of adopting the “deficiency model” of training which implies that training is only about putting right the things that have gone wrong.
Various Mechanisms for HRD (Human Resource Development)
Investment in human resource development is most enduring to the organization because without it, organization is only a skeleton. The various mechanisms for Human Resource Development (HRD) are: