Sources of Manpower in an Organization

Before an organization activity begins recruiting applicants, it should consider the most likely source of the type of employee it needs. Some companies they to develop new sources while most only they to tackle the existing sources they have-these sources, accordingly, may be termed as;

1. Internal sources:
Internal sources include personnel already on the payroll of an organization, i.e. its present working force. Whenever any vacancy occurs, somebody from within the organization is up graded, transferred promoted or sometimes demoted. This source also includes personnel who were once on the payroll of the company but who plan to return or whom the company would like to
retire, such as those on leave of absence, those who quit voluntarily or those on production layoffs.

Merits of Internal Sources:
  • The employer is in a better position to evaluate those presently employed than outside candidates.
  • As a person in the employment of the company are fully aware of an well acquainted with its policies and know its operating procedures, they require little training and the chances are that they would stay longer in the employment of the organization that a new outsider would.
  • It improves the moral of employees, for they are assured of the fat that they would be preferred over outsiders when vacancies occur.
  • It is less costly than going outside to recruit.
  • It promotes loyalty among the employees for it gives them a sense of job security and opportunities for advancement.
  • They are tried people and can, therefore be relied upon.
Demerits of Internal Sources:
  • As promotion is based on seniority, the danger is that really capable hands may not be chosen. The likes and dislikes of the management may also play important role in the selection of personnel.
  • It often leads to inbreeding and discourages new blood from entering an organization.
2. External sources: Every enterprise has to top external sources for various positions because all the vacancies cannot be filled through internal recruitment. The present employers may be insufficient or they may not fulfill the specifications of the jobs to be filled. External recruitment provides wide choice brings new blood in the organization. However it is an expensive and time consuming. The various external sources of recruitment are as follows:
  1. Recruitment Advertising: Advertisement in local or national newspapers or trade and professional journals is generally used when qualified or experienced personnel are not available from other sources. Most of the senior positions in industry as well as in trade are filled by this method, particularly when they cannot be filled from with it. The advantage of advertising is that more information about the organization, job description and job specification can be given in advertisement to allow self-screening by the perspective candidates. Advertisement gives the management a wider range of candidates for selection. But its disadvantage is that it brings in a flood of response even from quite unsuitable candidates and many applicants try to approach the members of the selection body.
  2. Employment Exchange and Agencies: Employment exchanges are the most popular source of recruitment for unskilled, skilled or semiskilled operative jobs. The seekers get their name registered with employment exchanged managed and operated by the central and state governments. The employers notify the vacancies to such exchanges and the exchanges refer the names of prospective candidates to the employers. Some private agencies also do recruit the technical and professional personnel for a company. They provide a nationwide service in attempting to match the demand and supply of personnel. Many private agencies tend to specialize in a particular type of work like sales, office, engineers etc.
  3. Recruitment from Colleagues: Jobs in trade and industry have become increasingly technical and complex to the point where school and college degree are widely required consequently, many big organizations maintain a close liaison with the universities vocational institutions and management schools for recruitment to various jobs.
  4. Causal Callers: Many well-reputed business organizations draw a steady stream of unsolicited applicants in their offices. Such job seekers can be a valuable source of manpower. A waiting list of such visitors may be prepared and they may be screened to fill the vacancies as they arise. The advantage of this source of recruitment is that it avoids the cost of recruitment from other sources. However, unsolicited applicants may become a disturbance in the daily routine of the enterprise.
  5. Recommendations: Applicants introduced by the employee’s friends and relatives to the organization may prove to be a good source of recruitment and indeed, many employers praetor to take persons because something about their background is known. When a present employee or a business friend recommends a person a short of preliminary screening has already taken place. Some organizations have agreements in the unions of employees to give preference to relatives or existing or retired employees if their qualifications and experience are suited for the vacancies.
Merits of External Environment:
  • Since persons are recruited from a large market the best selection can be made without any distinctions of caste, sex or colour.
  • In the long run, this source proves economical because potential employees do not need extra training for their jobs.
  • External sources provide the requisite type of personnel for an organization, having skill, training and education up to the required standard. Limitations of external recruitment however, this system suffers from what is called “brain drain” especially when experienced persons are required persons are raided or hunted by sister concerns.

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