|These techniques are most widely used techniques. The objectives of these methods center on the job, more specially, learning on the job itself by a variety of methods. The success of these techniques depends upon the immediate supervisor and how a good teacher he is. It is of utmost importance as the real learning takes place only when the learner uses what he has learnt on the job methods includes.|
- Coaching: Here the superior acts as a coach. The training of a subordinate by his immediate superior is by the most effective management development technique. Here the trainee serves as an assistant to the senior officer so that he may fill up the vacancy, which may arise in future. The coach may maintain a development file for each subordinate indicating the training the subordinate is receiving, the skills the subordinate is acquiring and how well the subordinate is performing.
- Position Rotation: Position rotation refers to the rotation of the trainee form one job to another as a systematic and regular basis so as to broaden his knowledge and understanding. Position rotation promotes competition among the rotating trainees. It reduces barriers to internal communication and facilitates interdepartmental; co-operation by familiarizing the trainee with various aspects of the firm’s operations. But the programmed of position rotation may create the problem of indiscipline moral and disruption unless it is administered skillfully.
- Special Projects and Task Forces: Under special project, an executive is assigned a project that is closely related to the objectives of his department. For example, a trainee may be asked to develop a system of cost control in the executive of an order. He will study the problem and make recommendations upon it. This project will also help in educating the trainee about the importance of cost and the organizational relationships with the accounting and other departments. Thus he acquires knowledge of allied subjects too.
- Experience: Learning through experience is the oldest techniques of executive development. This method says that the people can learn through their own experiences. The main problem with this method is that it is wasteful and time-consuming method.
- Understudy: An understudy is a person who is in training to assume at the future, the full responsibility of the positive currently held by his superior. This method supplies the organization a person with as much competence as the superior to fill his post, which may be chosen by the department or its head. He will then teach what all his entire job involves and gives a feel of what his job is. This understudy also learns the decision making as his superior involve him in the discussion of daily operating problems as well as long term problems.
- Selective Readings: By reading selected professional books journals, manager can keep in touch with the latest developments research findings, theories and techniques in management. Many organizations maintain libraries for their executives and managers to encourage them to read and improve their skill.
- Committee Assign: Under this method, the executive is placed on a particular committee which is to make the recommendations on a particular aspect. The executives learn by the discussions in the committee meeting.
- Multiple Management: It is a system in which management advisory committees of managers study problems of the company and make recommendations to higher management. It is also called junior broad of executive system. These committees discuss the actual problem and different alternative solutions after which the decisions are taken.
|Techniques of Executives Development|
Off-the-Job TechniquesExecutives can be given training through off-the-Job method. The most commonly used types off-the-job training is problem solving conference and case study methods. Interdepartmental meeting at the higher executives level visits to other companies for exchange of ideas with counterparts and participation in the activities of professional societies are off-the-job training method for managers and supervisor.
1. Case Study: The case is a actual situation which is written for discussion purpose. Analysis would need problem identification analysis of the situation and ot its causes. There would be several solutions to the problem and each of these alternatives and their implications needs to be examined. In the real world, on many occasions, a manager may not have all the relevant information with him before taking a decision. Similarly, the case method approximates this reality and in men’s situations decisions are taken with limited data, or what is termed decision-making under uncertainty. The managerial response in such a situation is explored and understood and learning consists of developing problem solving skills.
2. Brain Storming: Under this method, a problem is posed and ideas are invited from the trainees, criticism of any idea is critically examined. There is no trainer and the trainees are stimulated to creative thinking. The purpose is to reduce the inhibiting forces by providing for a maximum of group participation and divergence.
3. Conference and Seminars: A conference is a meeting of several people to discuss the subject of common interest. Better contribution from members can be expected as each one builds upon ideas of other participants. This method is best suited when a problem has to be analyzed and examined from different viewpoints. It helps the members develop their ability to modify their attitudes. Participants enjoy this method of learning as they get an opportunity to express their views.
The success of the conference depends on the conference leader. In order to make the conference leader must be able to see that the discussion is through and concentrate on the central problem by encouraging all the participants to develop alternatives and present their viewpoints and by preventing domination by a few participants.
4. Special Course: the executives are required to attend special courses formally organized by the enterprises with the help of experts from educational institutions. The executives may also be sponsored to attend the course to be conducted by management institutions.
This method is popular these days. However, due to high fee only the big enterprises may send their executives to the management development courses run by management institutions.
5. Simulation: Simulation implies the real organizational situations in the training sessions. Trainees are given specific situations of varying complexities, which they encounter in real life.
a. Role playing: In recent years, the role-playing technique is becoming popular. Under this method, the employees learns by playing role is that the trainee understands the situation from a perspective different from his own. Supervisors meet in conference and two are selected to act out some situation or problem, which is commonly faced. An employee seeking transfer is commonly encountered. One of the supervisor is assigned the role of the employee and the other acts as his supervisor, without rehearsal the two will act out how the supervisor and employee would react, when the two act, other members observe make mental notes and evaluate the performance. After the dream is complete, others may be selected to act out the same situation or a general discussion of the acting may be made. It corresponds to the modern case method of training.
This method has many advantages. First, the learner learns by doing and puts what he has learned into practice; second the trainee assists in training himself. He is in front of a group of his colleagues when he is playing a part and he knows what he say is being recorded. He can observe critically his own actions. Lastly, there is a high degree of learning by observing and listening. The competitive instinct makes each man do his best to excel.
b. In basket: This is a simulation training designed around the ‘incoming mail’ of a manager. A variety of situation is presented which would usually be dealth with by an executive in his working day. His reactions and responses are taken down in writing and then analyzed. Feedback on his decision forces him to reconsider not only his administrative actions but also his behavioural style. A variation of this is the incident method but also his behavioural style. A variation of this is the incident method where significant incidents having behavioural implications are analyzed and used as a training method.
c. Management Games: This is very special type of training under which the managerial executives are trained to take the decision under uncertainty. Under this method, a group of managerial executives complete with each other to arrive at decisions about definite business problems under stimulated conditions created specifically for the purpose. This method provides an opportunity to the managerial personnel to understand and appreciate the views of other persons.