Concept of Job Design
|Job design engineer performs the test of job design. Job is the vehicles through which the organizational works are accomplished so, while designing the job the designer should meet the psychological and behavioral feeling of jobholders. Otherwise jobholder won’t be motivated towards the job.|
Basis of Job DesignThe factors affecting job design are:
1. Job Analysis Factors: Job analysis forms an intensive, direct technique for identifying the crucial information regarding the job. It is the process of determining the tasks involves in the job and personnel qualities of the individuals required to perform the job. It defines duties, responsibilities and accomplish of a job. The components of job analysis are job and description and job specifications. Job analysis is used as an important input in job design to determine the contents of the job.
2. Organizational Factor: These factors are concerned with efficiency aspect in the job design. They focus on specialization. The factors are:
- Job Cycle: Job cycle is time allotted to complete every task in the job. Every task in the job are arranged to minimize the time and effort of worker on the basis of time and motion studies. Specialized jobs lead to short job cycles. Assembly lines present an example of short job cycle.
- Work Flow: The nature of the product influences work flow. Job design is based on determining the sequence of jobs and establishing balance between the jobs.
- Work Practices: They are set ways of performing jobs. They arise from tradition or the collective wishes of the employees. Job design is based on work practices.
- Ergonomics: It is the study of how human beings physically interface with their job. The job design is based on physically relationship between the worker and the work. Handling of the job is the prime consideration in job design.
- Employee Abilities and Availability: Efficiency considerations for job design are balanced against the abilities and availability of employees. The focus is on who will actually do the job.
- Socio-cultural Expectations: Jobs are designed to meet the socio-cultural expectations of the workers. Expectation of worker may differ as to hours of work, holidays, attitudes, religious beliefs and management styles.
- Autonomy: It is having responsibility for what one does. Job design is based on autonomy factors, especially for decision making and responding to environment.
- Variety: It refers to variety in the use of different skills and abilities. Lack of variety leads to boredom. Boredom leads to fatigue. Variety is injected in job design.
- Task Identity: It refers to doing the whole piece of work to get a sense of accomplishment. Job design is done to provide task identity.
- Task Significance: It is the feeling of does anyone cares. Job design is based on task significance to give a feeling that the work has meaning to people inside and outside the organization.
- Feedback: It refers to information on performance. Job design incorporates feedback aspect to tell workers feedback aspect to tell workers how well they are doing.