Classical Approach of Job Design

Classical Approach of Job Design

It is based on the principles of scientific management. Standardization and simplification are used in job design to ensure specialization. The popular methods are:

a) Work simplifications: The job is simplified by breaking down the tasks of the job. The task contained in one job may be assigned to tow jobs. The outcome of work simplification is more specialization. 
AdvantagesDisadvantages
- Work simplification, promotes efficiency through specialization.
- Less trained and low paid employees can perform the jobs.
- Overspecialization results in boredom: Boredom results in fatigue and high labour.
- Cost go up.
- Routinized mechanical pacing provides little opportunity for interaction.
b) Job Rotation: Employees are allowed to move from job to job. The jobs are not changed; only the employees are rotated.
AdvantagesDisadvantages
- Job rotation provides variety; employees can use different skills and abilities; monotony of specialized jobs are broken.
- Employees become competent in several jobs. This results in employee development.
- Worker’s self image is improved, provides for employee’s personal growth and improves task significance.
- Organizations get flexibility in scheduling work.
- Job rotation does not improve the jobs; job relationships remain unchanged.
- Costs are high, especially the training costs.
- Job disruptions may be created.
- Employees may feel alienated.

c. Job Enlargement: The tasks assigned to a job are increased by adding similar tasks. The scope of the job is enlarged horizontally. It is also known as “Horizontal loading” of job.
AdvantagesDisadvantages
- It provides variety; reduces monotony by expanding the job cycle; draws on a wider range of employee skills.
- Job satisfaction increases; motivation may also increases higher needs of employees may get satisfied.
- It requires longer training period; cost is high.
- It does not reduce monotony of job; adds one more boring job to another.
- It is resisted by employees.

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