Behavioral ApproachThis approach considers behavioral factors in job design. Employee needs in terms of autonomy, variety, task identify, task significance, and feedback are considered. The methods are:
a) Job Enrichment: It adds new sources of satisfaction to jobs. Jobs are made challenging and meaningful by increasing responsibilities are added to the job, usually with less supervision and more self-evaluation. workers get greater autonomy in planning and controlling their performance. It is also known as "vertical loading" of job. The steps in job environment are
- Select jobs, which are suitable for enrichment; identify changes needed.
- Change contents of the job to provide autonomy, control responsibility, achievement, and advancement.
- Train and guide employees.
- Integrate enriched jobs into work schedule.
|- It leads to increased motivation and job satisfaction.|
- It satisfies higher level needs of the employees; job outcomes improve; job status increases.
- It stimulates improvements in other areas of the organization.
- It empowers employees; provides feedback to correct performances.
- It leads to reduce turnover and lower absenteeism; employee development is facilitated.
|- Unions may resist job enrichment; employees may refuse to accept enriched jobs with new responsibilities. |
- The costs of design and implementation are high for job enrichment; training costs can be high.
- It focuses on the job only and ignores other variables that contribute to quality of work life (QWL).
- Managers may be unwilling to delegate authority; supportive work environment may be lacking.
- Job enrichment is only a tool; it is not universally applicable, it is situation specific.
b) Autonomous Teams (Self-directed Team): Autonomous teams are a group of employees with widely defined jobs and responsibilities to achieve specific goal. Team members are: highly committed; decide collectively; interact continuously; work closely, determine work assignments and working methods and practice self-supervision.
|- Autonomous teams generally achieve high productivity and quality.|
- Supervision costs are reduced.
- Team spirit with employee empowerment is realized.
- Greater involvement of employees in decision making; greater employees commitment.
|- Employees, managers and unions resist autonomous teams.|
- Cooperation among team members may be difficult.
- Efficiency of the team may be low.
c) Modified Works Schedules: The work schedule is modified. The techniques can be
- Shorter work week; worker work ten hours each day for four days. It provides mere leisure to employees. Turnover and reduced absenteeism.
- Flexible time
- Job sharing