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Friday, February 22, 2013

Concept and Factors Contributed for the Development of HRM

Concept of HRM

Human resource management is concerned with people dimension in organization. It focuses on management of human energy and capabilities to improve productivity. People possessing physical strength and energy alone are not human resource. People become human resource only when they contribute their competencies. Competencies are the combination of knowledge, skill, attitude, experience etc. As we know management is the art of getting things done through other people. Managers perform the function of planning, organizing, staffing, coordinating, directing etc. The staffing function is concerned with human resource management.

According to Decenzo and Robbins, “Human resource management is a process consisting of four functions acquisition, development, motivation and maintenance.”

According to Paul G. Hastings, “Human resource management is that aspect of management having as its goal the effective utilization of the labour resources of an organization.”
Similarly, Oliver Sheldon defines, “Human resource management is a part of the management process, which is primarily concerned with human constituents of an organization.”

Hence, in conclusion human resource management is very crucial for the success of any organization. Human beings are a resource to an organization but it is the living resource which cannot be equated with the other resources which are unanimated. Human resources add to the value while other resources add to the cost. All the firms buy the same material and machines but it is the people in the organization who built it and makes differences in the ultimate product. The human being never reaches an ultimate value throughout his lifetime at work which other resources reach to an ultimate value it starts producing. Thus, the management of human resource is very complicated and challenging task for those who are interested with the successful running of an organization and this implies considerable knowledge by various aspects of human resource management. The human resource management function or personnel function should be lightening rod attracting the tension and human conflict, which are inevitable in an organization and community.

Factors contributed for the Development of HRM

The phrase “human resource management” is not new. It was used as long as 40 years ago, but at that time, it was interchangeable with personnel management. The development of HRM has gone through different stages. Many factors have contributed for the development of human resource management. They are follows:


1. Industrial revolution stage: Industrial revolution brought the three major developments.
  • The development of machinery
  • The linkage of human power to machine
  • The establishment of factories.
Due to the industrial revolution, people specialized in their job. Workers organized themselves into trade unions to achieve better conditions of employment. Labour laws were enacted to protect the interest of worker. Collective bargaining between labour and management was used to settle industrial disputes. Robert Owen reduced working hours and built house and schools for workers. After industrial revolution, problems related to human resources led towards taking care of employees. It can be considered as the first stage of human resources development.

2. Scientific management movement stages: This stage aimed at improving worker efficiency through proper selection, training and compensation. F. W. Taylor suggested the following tips:
  • Individuals who are selected for the jobs should be physically and mentally to the demand of jobs.
  • Employees should not be called upon to work at the time that would be detrimental to their health.
  • Education and development of the workers, properly trained and developed workers produced best.
  • Incentive system to “earn more be performing more” properly paid workers.
  • Specialization through division of work to achieve efficiency.
3. Industrial psychology: An employee having positive attitude can faster industrial efficiency. Efficiency can be increased by testing intelligence test of the employee. Thus to increase the efficiency, human psychology should be studied through different test and should developed a good interest, and positive attitude on the work in them.

4. The human relation movement stage: This stage focuses people element in personnel management. Hawthorne studies serve as the beginning of human relation movement. It advocates the following personnel management aspects.
  • Participative management and teamwork
  • Importance of social setting and group dynamics in employee productivity.
  • Need for improved communication among managers and employees.
5. The period of labour legislation: To control, direct and motivate the labour, there should be strong need of some kinds of legislation. The civil right act was passed in 1964. Discrimination law, pension laws, health and safety laws, federal regulatory agencies. And their interpretive guidelines and cowed ruling affected virtually every aspect of employment.

6. Organizational development movement stage: The organization development (OD) movement of the 1960s and 1970s was closely associated with the concept of behavioral science. The OD approach concentrates on overall organizational effectiveness, especially with regard to process how people behave in situation where they are constantly interacting with one another. Team development and management of change were often important features of an OD programme. Particular attention was paid to the analysis of group processes and OD consultants evolved methods of analyzing organization behavior, especially within and between group and of solving conflict problems.

In particular, Schein (1969) developed methodologies for process consulting. This involves helping clients to generate information, which they can understand about their projects and problems, and creating conditions for them to won the solutions to their problems by gaining internal commitment to their choice.

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