- Management by objectives (MBO): MBO emphasizes participation of individuals in setting goals. It is a systematic and organized approach that allows management to attain maximum results from available resources by focusing on achievable goals. It is a rational approach to management and helps prevent, management by crisis, fire fighting methods. The emphasis on joint goal setting and self control not only promotes individual development but also improves organizational effectiveness in the long run.
- Team building: The focus of team building is the development of effective management teams. These work groups focus on solving actual problems in building effective management teams. The team leader defines a problem that demands organizational change. The group analyses the problem and traces out the causes of the problem. The problem arising from communication, leadership styles, organization structure etc. are high lighted here. There next step involved proposing alternative solutions and then selecting the most suitable one. Through the process, the participants are likely to be committed to the solution, interpersonal support and trust develops.
- Job enrichment: Job enrichment refers to basic changes in the content and level of responsibility of a job so as to provide for satisfaction of the motivation needs (achievements, recognition, responsibility, personal growth) of personnel. Jobs are made more challenging, meaningful and interesting. When applied initially, job enrichment programmes have increased employee productivity and job satisfaction and reduced the employee turnover and absenteeism.
- Managerial grid: Grid training developed by Black and Mouton, emphasizes the fact that most effective leadership style is that which stresses maximum concern for both production and people. It is a systematic approach for analyzing management styles and helps the organization in moving to the best cycle.
- Sensitivity training: (Called as psycho therapy or T group training). The general goal of sensitivity training is to develop awareness of and sensitivity to oneself and others. The training generally takes place under laboratory conditions. As small number of participants (12-15) sit together along with a trainer who (usually behavioral scientist) helps the participants in having an open and authentic communication with each other. The individual participant is made aware of his own behavior, how other perceives his behavior etc.
An OD intervention is defined as, "the set of structured activities in which selected organizational units (target groups or individuals) engage with the task or a sequence of task where the task goals are related directly or indirectly to organizational improvements."
OD intervention is different from traditional intervention which focuses on content. OD intervention covers the whole organizational process. OD intervention focuses on work team and intends to change towards effective behavior. It relies on collaborative management of work culture.
Types of OD Interventions/ Techniques of Organizational Development
Besides these, there are other intervention strategies also like participants management process consultation, etc. OD is most successful when there is a deep commitment on the part of top management. Further OD should be viewed as a long term. Continuing programme rather than a short terms ‘short in the arm’ for the organizational unit.