Group Processes

Group behavior is affected by the processes that go within a work group. The process comprises the communication pattern used by members for information exchange, group decision process, conflict, interaction etc. The group process is very much important to understand and group behavior. By understanding group behaviors the behaviors can be controlled and with the help of desired behavior work can be accomplished. Group process include the following synergy:

An action of two or more substances that results in an effect that is different from the individual summation of the substances. For example, social loafing (i.e. the tendency for individuals to expend less effort when working collectively than when working individually) is a negative synergy.

Social Facilitation Effect
The tendency for performance to improve or decline in response to the presence of others, while this effect is not entirely a group's phenomenon- people can work in the presence of other and not be members of the groups. The group situation is more likely to provide the condition for social facilitation to occur.

Concept of Group Tasks
There is certain nature of task, which needs groups to perform it. Individual alone cannot perform it. Sometimes one group has to depend upon other group due to its nature. The impact of group processes on the group's performance and member satisfaction is also moderated by the tasks that the group is doing. The complexity and interdependence of task influence the group effective.

Group task can be simple or complex.

1. Simple Task:
  • Are routine wise or standardized 
  • Group's members do not need to discuss alternatives.
  • They can rely on standardized operation procedures for doing the job.
2. Complex Task:
  • Ones that tend to be novel or non-routine. 
  • The more complex the task, the more the group will benefit from discussion among members on alternative work method.
  • There is high degree of interdependence among the tasks that the group member must perform.

Group Structure

Every group has structure, which shape the behavior of members and makes explain and predict the large portion of individual behavior within the group and performance of the group.

A group structure includes following variables.
1. Formal Leadership: Almost every groups has a formal leader e.g. manager, supervisor/ foreman.

2. Roles: Roles deal with what people do. As set of expected behavior pattern attributed to someone occupying a given position in asocial unit. People have the ability to shift roles rapidly when they recognize that the situation and its demand clearly require major changes.
    • Role Identity: These are certain attitudes and actual behavior consistent with a role and they create role identity.
    • Role Perception: An individual's view of how he is supposed to act in a given situations.
    • Role Expectations: How others believe a person should act in a given situation.
3. Norms: The norms are accepted standard of behavior shared by group members. It tells, what should or should not do by group members. Every group has established their norms. But norms differ from group to group. Norms influence the behavior of group members. They are 'ought' of behavior.

4. Authority: Group is formed to achieve a particular objective. In a group, that is a leader and follower. Leader is an entitled to decision, while the follower has to follow the decision. Thus the power to make decision into action is known as authority.

Group

Group is a collection of two or more individuals, interacting and interdependent who have come together to achieve particulars common objectives. A group is, thus, an aggregation of people who interact with each other, are aware of one another, have a common objective, and perceive themselves to be a group. Now, a group may be defined as a collection of people who have a common purpose or objectives,
interact with each other to accomplish the group objectives are aware of one another and perceive themselves to be part of group.

More collection people cannot constitute a group. For example, a crowd in front of a shop in the market watching India vs. Australia one-day cricket match on stadium will not be called as group because people do not interact with one another, do not known one another and also do not share a common purpose.

Now, based on above definitions, the following characteristics of group can be listed:
  • Two or more people
  • Collective identity
  • Interaction and interdependence
  • Common purpose
Reason of people forming and joining group
People form and become members of group for a variety of different reasons. They are as follows:
  1. Safety and security needs: Groups provide protection to their members from outside pressures. That is why workers join trade unions to feel safe and secure. This holds true at all walks of life. Even in the nursery class. When the teacher asks the small kids who broke the toy, he seldom gets an answer. What happens is all kids keep mum or quiet. Although young, they protected their member by not disclosing any kid's name of pointing out nay one in group.
  2. Relatedness or Belongingness needs: People being social belong belonging to or relating to groups satisfies a numbers of their social needs. In every organization, there are many persons who are very isolated or who prefer to be absent from work most of the times. Studies shows, such phenomena occur more where people are unable to belong to groups.
  3. Esteem needs: When one's member of a group and does some good piece of work, gets a praise from other. This is turn, bring a sense of recognition to the group member, on the one hand, and also a sense of fulfillment of one's need for growth towards higher achievement of work and better career prospects, on the other side.
  4. Power: One of the appealing aspects of groups is that they represent power and also offer power to their members. Workers enjoy much greater power by joining groups than they do as individuals. This is because of at least two reasons: (i) There is strength in numbers, and (ii) United we stand, divide we fall.
  5. Identity: As a member of a group, an individual gets identity who am I? Practices, we understand ourselves through the behavior of other towards us. For example, when others- praise us, we feel we are great, if other laugh at us, we see ourselves as funny ones.

Role of Informal Groups in Organizations

Group may be defined as a social phenomenon in which two or more persons decide to interact with one another, share common ideology and perceive themselves as a group. Both formal and informal groups exist in organizations. Formal groups are collection of employees who are made to work together by the organization to get the job done smoothly and efficiently. Informal groups, on the other hand are groups that emerge or randomly get formed due to the formal group member's interactions with each other, and there by develop common interacts. In the other words, informal groups are not formally organized in the work system to get the job done, but randomly develop on their own at the work place because of common interests and mutual linking among the members of the formal group. Informal groups in modern organization are important as they play vital roles. Some of the roles played by informal groups can be as following:
  • Informal group are controlled by their norms and values, so the behavior of employees could be positive.
  • Informal groups sometime lead to innovation and creativity regarding to job complexity and difficulties or for new product and services.
  • Informal groups are controlled by their norms and values, so the behavior of employees could be positive.
  • Informal groups help in communicating new changes easily and effectively.
  • Informal group by their social interaction can create the better image of company.
  • Informal group creates the warm relationship between superior and subordinates. Plus, it helps in establishing cultural interaction for the issues created in organization.
  • Informal group can solve the formal problems of organization even in off-the-job time.
  • Informal groups inform, suggest and help the organization determining employee's salary, motivation and job satisfaction.
  • Informal groups lead special effort on job result and help in adoption of organizational change.

Self-managed Work Team

Self-managed work team is the group of employee who take on the responsibilities of the supervisor. The group performs all things by themselves. They make planning and scheduling of the work. Typically, self-managed teams are group of 10-15 employees who perform related or interdependent jobs. They select their own members and evaluate each other's performance. It increases productivity and satisfaction. However, the effectiveness of self-managed teams is situationally dependent. They have reduced the importance of supervisor position. Due to this reason, many companies in US, Europe, Japan are putting to their effort to developed self-managed team in their organizations. These teams are oneself-managed. No need to manage them from the upper level.

Merit: Members report high job satisfaction
Demerit: Higher absenteeism and turnover rates, don't seem to work well while downsizing.

Major Issues in Managing Work Teams
1. How does team facilitate the adoption of TQM (Total Quality Management)?
The TQM requires encouragement to employee by management to share ideas and implement improvements. Team provides the vehicle for employees to share ideas and to implement improvement. The issue is how to make the work teams effective for quality problem solving, especially in terms of size, ability, resources, mobilization etc.

2. What is the importance of workforce diversity on team performance?
The strongest case for diversity on work teams is when these teams are engaged in problem-solving and decision-making tasks. Diverse groups have more difficulty in working together and solving problem but this dissipate with time.

3. Increasing team effectiveness
An important issue is how to increase and maintain team effectiveness. For this, the following things should be taken into considerations. 
  • Prepare member to deal with the problem of maturity- remind them that they are not unique.
  • Offer refresher training
  • Offer advanced training
  • Encourage team to treat their development as a constant learning experience.

Introduction of Quality Circle in an organization

Introduction of Quality Circle in an organization
Like any organizational change, QC being a new concept is most likely be opposed by the employees. Therefore, QC should be introduced with great concern and precaution as discussed below:
  1. Publicizing the Idea of QC: Implementation of QC is just like an organizational change programme. Hence, like an organizational change programme, the workers need to be convinced about the need for and significance of QC from the point of view of the organization and the workers. Participation in QC being voluntary, its publicity among the workers is necessary. To begin with, management can also arrange for initial training to some workers who want to form quality circles. 
  2. Constitution of Quality Circles: Workers doing similar type of work are drawn voluntarily to constitute quality circles. The membership of a QC should be limited to ten to twelve members.
  3. Initial Problem Solving: The members of the QC should discuss the problem a threadbare and prepare a list of alternative solutions. Each alternative solution should be evaluated and final solution should be arrived at on the basis of consensus.
  4. Presentation and Approval of Suggestions: The final solution arrived at should be presented to the management either in oral or in written form. The management may evaluate the solution by forming a committee for this purpose. The committee may also meet the members of the quality circle for clarifications. Presentation of solutions to the management helps improve the communication between management and workers and reflects management's interest to the members of QC.
  5. Implementation: Once the suggestion/ solution is approved by the management, the same is being put into practice in a particular workplace. Quality circles may be organized gradually for other workplaces or departments also. Thus, following this process, the entire organization can have quality circles.

Group Dynamics

The social process by which people interact face to face in small group is called group dynamics. The word 'dynamics' comes from the Greek word meaning 'force', hence group dynamics refers to the study of forces operating within a group. Two important historical landmarks in our understanding of small groups are the research of Elton mayo and his associates in the 1920s and 1930s and the experiments in the 1930s of Kurt Lewin, the founder of the group dynamics movement. Mayo showed that workers tend to establish informal groups that affect job satisfaction and effectiveness. Lewin showed that different kinds of leadership produced different responses in groups.

Groups have properties of their own that are different from the properties of the individuals who make up the group. The special properties of groups are illustrated by a simple lesson in mathematics. Suppose we say 'one plus one equals three' 1+1=3. In the world of mathematics that is a logical error. But in the world of group dynamics it is entirely rational to say 'one plus one equals three'. In a group, there is no such thing as only two people, for no two people can be considered without including their relationship, and that relationship is the third element in the equation.

Developed and Enforced of Group Norms
Group norm is standard of behavior. In other words, groups norm is a rule that tells the individual how to behave in a particular group. Thus, group norms identify the standards against which the behaviors of group members know what they should or should not do. Norms could be formal or could be informal.

According to Schein, there are pivotal and relevant group norms while the pivotal norms are confirmed by every member of the group, the relevant norms are desirable to be confirmed by the members. With increase in the size of the group, the acceptability of norms tends to lessen. Small deviation of norms is allowable. However in case of extreme deviation, the deviator gets punished. For example, when the union is on strike, if its member attending to work are punished by being boycotted by the group. Hence, norms serve as the basis for behavior of group members. They predict and control the behavior of member in groups.

Stages of Group Development

Different researches have reported different stages of group development. For example, Bernard M. Bass and Edward C. Ryterband report that groups typically develop through a four stage process:
  • Mutual acceptance 
  • Communication and decision making
  • Motivation and productivity
  • Control and organization
However, the most widely accepted five stages of group development are ones as reported by B.W. Tauchman and M.A. Jensen. These are:
Stages of Group Development
  1.  Forming Stages: The first stage for almost every group is an orientation stage. This stage is marked by a great deal of caution, confusion, courtesy and uncertainty about the group's purpose, structure, and leadership. The formal leader exerts a great influence in structuring the group and shaping member expectations. This stage is complete when members of the group have begun to think of themselves as part of a group. 
  2.  Storming Stage: This stage is characteristics by conflict, confrontation, concern and criticism. Struggles for individual power and influences are common. In case, the conflict becomes extremely intense and dysfunctional; the group may dissolve or continue as an ineffective group that advances to higher levels of group maturity.
  3. Norming Stage: This is the stage in which close relationship among the members develops. The group evinces cohesiveness. The group now assumes to certain identify and camaraderie.
  4. Performing Stage: This is the highest level of group maturity. This stage is marked teamwork, role clarity, and task accomplishment. Conflict is identified and resolved through group discussion. The members of the group are aware of group's processes and the extent of their own involvement in the group.
  5. Adjourning Stage: This stage is recognized as end of group i.e. completing every task and the group will be automatically adjourned. Groups are adjourned for two reasons. First the group has completed its task. Second, the members decide to disband and close the group with sentimental feeling.

Reasons of Awareness of Information Groups

Manager should be aware of informal groups in regards to both positive and negative aspects. The rational manager should always focus on negative side than positive because negative aspects of informal groups are more danger and create problems to entire organization. The following points clear negative aspects of informal groups.
  • Informal group can have unfair views to the management.
  • Unnecessary politics may arise in organization.
  • Informal groups may end at any time.
  • Informal group may not have best leadership to energizes and synergize the work efficiency.
  • Informal groups can create the ethical confusion in organization as views are interacted to produce contrast views.
  • Informal group sometimes is translated in organizational activities.
Element of Group Cohesiveness

Group cohesion means the degree to which the group members are attracted to each other and remain within the group. It is usually reflected by its resiliency to disruption by outside forces. Group cohesion develops out of the activities, interactions, and sentiments of the members.

The element or factors affecting group cohesion are as follows:
  1. Group Size: One of the important and necessary conditions for the existence of the group is that members interact and communicative with each other. If the group is so large that members do not get to know each others, there is little likelihood that the group will be high in cohesiveness. This is a logical assumption that would be made by those who understand the difficulties of communicating in large groups. Research studies have found that inverse relationship does not exist between the size of the group and the group cohesive. As the size of a group increases, its cohesiveness decreases. 
  2. Member Similarity: The degree of cohesiveness will be high when group members are similar in age, backgrounds and values. In other words, homogeneous groups will be more cohesive than heterogeneous group. It is because of more trust and less conflict among the group members with homogeneous character.
  3. Member Interaction: When member interact frequently, there tends to be more group of cohesive because they got chance to share ideas and views in order to avoid the situation of misunderstanding and conflict.
  4. Groups Success: a successful group tends to be more cohesive than a group of repetitive failure records. Group members of the succession group believe that, because of their successive records in the past, they will remain successful in the future too.

Nature and Significance of Informal Groups in Organization

Informal groups are neither formally structure nor organizationally determined. It is based on personal interaction, sentiments and social activities. The membership is voluntary participate. Its primary focus is person. It has members with common objective or similar need for social affiliation and friendship. It quickly adapts to environmental changes but resists to change within the group.

Not only is the formal group important in effective performance of the job. But equally important of informal group in organization because of the following reasons:
  1. Compensation for the low capacity manager's ability: Manager may not be capable in all the fields. In same, he may snag the ability. Especially, in planning and other decision making his snags i.e. low capacity can be compensated by his subordinates informally, if he has the good relationship with the informal group. 
  2. Useful channel of communication: Communication through informal group is faster than formal. Any information through the channel of informal groups spreads quickly. Thus the informal group proves to be very useful channel for effective communication.
  3. Compel managers to plan and act cautiously: Informal groups induce the manager to plan and act cautiously because of weak plan and action is always undermined by the groups.
  4. Provides sense of belongingness and security: Informal group provides satisfaction and stability of work team to attain a sense of belongingness and security. A new employee will remain an isolate until the group accepts him as a member. When the new comer will be accepted as a group member he attains a sense of belongingness and security.
  5. Greater performance and supervision: Informal groups help get the jobs done or control performance. If the manager feels that his work team is cooperating him, he has less need for checking frequently and confidently delegate and decentralize the work. The informal group support leads in general supervision instead of close supervision, which enhances the productivity of the employees later on.
  6. Reduced frustration and allied employee: Informal groups are the safety value for the frustration and allied employee because if any employee feels irrigation with his superior's behavior, he can talk it to his group members and can dissipate his unpleasant feelings.

Mc George Theory X and Y

Mc George Theory X and Y is the outcomes of the Mayo and his associates work. They have developed the popular classification scheme of acceptable and unacceptable managerial styles in management literature. Mc George termed it as the theory of X and theory of Y. He believes that the manager tries to motivate employees by one of the two basic approaches.

Assumptions of Theory X
  • The average people inherently dislike work and will avoid if it is possible. 
  • Due to dislike of work, most people must be forced to control, direct and threat with punishment to get them to perform work effectively.
  • The average human beings lacks ambition, avoids responsibility and seeks security and economic rewards above all else.
  • Most of the people are rigid to change and also lack creativeness.
  • They are self centered, so they are not concerned with the goals of the organization.
Thus, the central principle of theory X is that an organization is controlled and directed through the exercise of authority. Mc George firmly believed that attempts to control employees forced them towards organizational goals based on the assumptions of theory and may fail to motivate individuals to work towards organizations goals.

For the people X, the manager has to exercise centralized control and supervision and emphasize on autocratic type of leadership style and downward communication.

Assumptions of Theory Y
  • According to this, a physical and mental effort in work is as natural as play or rest. 
  • People will exercise self direction and self control in the service of objectives to which they are committed.
  • Commitment to objective is the function of the rewards associated with achievement.
  • The average person learns under proper conditions, not only to accept but to seek responsibility.
  • The capacity to exercise a relatively high degree of imagination, ingenuity and creativity in the solution of organizational problems is widely not narrowly, distributed in the population.
  • Under the conditions of modern industrial life, the intellectual potentialities of the average person are only partly utilized.
The theory Y emphasized the creating of opportunities, removing obstacles, encouraging growth and providing guidance. Mc George believed that for motivating the persons Y decentralized organization, democratic leadership and two way communications will help to create the congenial environment to work.

Means for Effective Motivation

Motivation is a very complex phenomenon. In order to motivate people towards organizational goals and effective actions, management has to create a congenial physical, social and psychological atmosphere. Human behavior is influenced by a host of complex factors. Understanding these factors and adjusting them to suit the organizational need is essential for effective motivation.
The management can employ the following means for effective employee motivation:
  1. Fair Remuneration: Most of the basic and many of the secondary human needs can be satisfied by fairly remunerating the employees. Nature of job, cost, cost of living, pay scales of other organizations, the wage structures and scales should properly be evaluated and determined.
  2. Job Satisfaction: Management should place employees properly according to their merits, aptitudes, interests and capacities. The well placed employees take pride, interest and initiative in their work and derive job satisfaction. Job satisfaction leads to realization of goals.
  3. Job Security: Job security is a great motivating factor. Security is a great psychological need of a man and hence must be satisfied for turning up the morale.
  4. Fair Promotions: Everybody aspires for growth and development in his life. Organizational promotions satisfy various physiological, social and psychological needs of the people. Management should therefore, create arrange for promotional training and education to enable employees to get promotions.
  5. Congenial Working Environment: Working conditions for the employees must be made congenial. The adequate provision of light, air, safety, sanitation, cleanliness, noise prevention, smoke and fume clearance should be made for physical health and mental health and satisfaction. Congenial environment releases tension and tiredness and motivate them to work.
  6. Honest and Competent Leadership: If the leaders and managers are honest, impartial, sympathetic and capable of understanding employee hopes and aspirations, emotions and sentiments, prospects and problems, motives and attitudes, they would be able to win the control, maintain discipline and motivate their employees. They must treat employees with love and affection, but at the same time they must be able to maintain such distance that the discipline and respect are not at the slake.
  7. Efficient System of Grievance Redressal: Employee grievance is a major factors detracting employee from work and forming an apathetic attitudes towards manage. If management introduces a perfect system of discovering the employee grievances, their causes and remedies and remove them honesty and regularly, it will win the confidence of the employees that the management is really interested in their well being and there is great desire in management to keep them happy and contented.
  8. Freedom of Association, Mobility, Expression etc.: The need of association is a great need of human being. It is therefore, the management should satisfy their need by providing freedom to individuals to form their cultural and social associations whether formal or informal.
  9. Efficient Organization, Coordination and Control: Efficient organization may include adequate and efficient physical facilities and organization of manpower. Proper delegation of authority and fixation of responsibilities avoid confusion and conflicts to bring unity in action and purpose. Similarly, efficient coordination of activities lead to harmonious relations and approach and the adequate system of control checks all splintering and cross purpose activities. To the great extent the feeling of security, certainty, fairness, confidence, interest and initiative is a result of efficient organization, coordination and control.
  10. Democratic Management Technique: If the employees are given participation in management decisions, they began to feel themselves as a part and parcel of organization. It satisfies their instinct of belonging to the organization, gives them psychological satisfaction and fosters the feeling of team and cooperation. A sense of responsibility and duty is generated.
  11. Other Incentives: Several other physical and psychological incentives may be offered by the management to tone up employee morale and motivate them towards stated objectives. The efficient training progress, the affectionate attitude of superiors towards their subordinates and such innumerable measures can motivate people.

Need for Motivation

Among the behavioral concepts, motivation has received the most attention in the study of organizational behavior. The following factors justify the need for and significance of motivation in organizations.
  1. Organizations are run by people. Hence, managers cannot afford to avoid a concern with human behavior at work. This is because the motivated employees are more productive and quality-conscious than apathetic ones. 
  2. Motivation as a pervasive concept affects and is also affected by a host of factors in the organizational milieu. If enables managers to understand why people behave as they behave.
  3. Organizational effectiveness becomes, to some extent, the questions of management's ability to motivate its employees. Hence, an appreciation of motivation helps the managers how to motivate their employees.
  • Machines become necessary in case of complex technology. However, these remain inefficient vehicles of effective operations without man to operate them. Therefore, organizations need to have employees with required capability and willingness to use the advanced and complex technology to achieve the organizational goals.
  • Finally, the need for and significance of motivation for, an organization can be put as: If we compare management with driving, while the organization is the vehicle than motivation is the power or fuel that makes the vehicle moving.

    Job satisfaction

    Job satisfaction is a positive attitude towards one's job. Job satisfaction will be defined as the amount of overall positive affect (or feelings) that individuals have towards their job. It is important to mention that an individual may hold different attitudes towards various aspects of the job. For example, a university professor may like his job responsibilities but be dissatisfied with the opportunities for promotion characteristics if individual also influence the job satisfaction. Individuals with high positive affectivity are more likely to be satisfied with their jobs. Reverse is true for individuals with high negative affectivity, there are three important dimensions to job satisfaction. There are;

    First, job satisfaction being an emotional response to a job, cannot be seen. As such it can only be inferred.

    Second, job satisfaction is often determined by how satisfactorily outcomes meet or exceed one's expectation.

    Third, job satisfaction represents an employee's attitude towards five specific dimensions of the jobs: pay the work itself, promotion opportunities, supervision and coworkers.

    Tools for measuring job satisfaction
    There are a number of ways of measuring job satisfaction. The most common ways of measuring job satisfaction are (i) Single Global Rating and (ii) Summation Score.
    1. Single Global Rating: Under single global rating, the employees are asked to respond to one question. An example of single question may be considering all dimension of job, how satisfied are you with your job? Employees need to respond by reporting a figure based on rating scale. Rating scales may be from 1 to 5 as follows:
    • Highly dissatisfied 
    • Dissatisfied 
    • No comment
    • Satisfied
    • Highly satisfied
    Thus, the rating, based on above scale, to a question given by a employee is a reflection of magnitude or measurement of employees job attitude towards his/her job.

    2. Summation Score: The employees attitudes towards the various aspects of the job is considered in summation score. Nature of the work, supervision, pay, promotion, opportunities and relationship with coworkers are the important aspects of the job that are included in rating score. The scores given to each of these aspects are then added up to create and overall job satisfaction score of an individual employee. Besides, mentioned above heads, the following are the some ways of measuring job satisfaction.
    • Interview: This is yet another method of measuring of job satisfaction. Under this method, employees are interviewed personally. The responds given by them reverse their satisfaction or dissatisfaction towards their jobs. 
    • Actions Tendencies: Under this method, information is gathered about how the employees were inclined to avoid or joined certain things relating to job satisfaction or dissatisfaction.
    • Critical Incidence: This method is based on Herz Berg's two factors theory of motivation. In this approach, employees are asked to identify the specific incidence in their job in which they were particularly satisfied or dissatisfied. These incidences further analyzed to ascertain the aspect which were closely related with to positive and negative attitude of the employees towards incidence so identified.

    McClelland's Theory of Motivation

    David C. McClelland and his associates began a study of three needs that motivates human behavior that is power, affiliation and achievement in the early 1950s. McClelland believes that each person has a need for all three and other needs but that people differs in the degree to which the various needs motivate their behavior.


    Applications of McClelland’s Theory
    Since he stated that each person has three needs, these three needs can be abbreviated as “n Ach”, “n Pow” and “n Aff” respectively. They are defined as follows:
    1. Need for Achievement (n Ach): This is the drive to excel, to achieve in relation to a set of standard, and to strive to succeed. In other words, need for achievement is a behavior directed towards competition with a standard of excellence. McClelland found that people with a high need for achievement perform better than those with a moderate or low need for achievement, and noted regional/national differences in achievement motivation. Through his research, McClelland identified the following three characteristics of high need achievers:
    • High need achievers have a strong desire to assume personal responsibility for performing a task or finding a solution to a problem. 
    • High need achievers tend to set moderately difficult goals and task calculated risks.
    • High need achievers have a strong desire for performance feedback.
    2. Need for Power (n Pow): The need for power is concerned with making an impact on other, the desire to influence other, the wage to change people, and the desire to make a difference in life. People with a high need for power are people who like to be in control of people and events. This results in ultimate satisfaction to man.
    People who have a high need for power are characterized by: 
    • A desire to influence and direct somebody else. 
    • A desire to exercise control over others.
    • A concern for maintaining leader-follower relations.
    3. Need for Affiliation (n Aff): The need for affiliation is defined as a desire to establish and maintain friendly and warm relations with other people. The need for affiliation, in many ways, is similar to Maslow’s social needs. The people with high need for affiliation have these characteristics: 
    • They have a strong desire for acceptance and approval from others. 
    • They tend to conform to the wishes of those people whose friendship and companionship they value.
    • They give value and feeling to others.

    Techniques to Combat Emerging Issues of Motivation

    Better performance of job is possible only when, all employee show higher degree of willingness to do a particular job. There is hard to believe that people are highly satisfied with their job. For the betterment of organization and employee as ell, there numbers of tool and techniques of motivating people at work to enhance performance. However, the important techniques are as follow: 
    1. Motivation through compensation/ rewards: Compensation is a broad term which includes pay and benefits such as insurance, retirement saving, paid time off from work. It represents the total package of rewards- both monetary and non-monetary. From another perspectives, ti can be extrinsic or intrinsic. The rewards granted to the individual by organization are extrinsic rewards where s the rewards which are self-generated or felt internally are the intrinsic rewards. Money, fringe benefits, promotion, status, and a sense of accomplishment, self-esteem, self-actualization etc are the examples of intrinsic rewards. It should be noted that, whether the rewards is intrinsic or extrinsic, it leads to high motivation and the leads better performance of job. 
    2. Motivation through employee participation: Organization is now considered as social institution. The management and employees have equal interest to the survival and prosperity of an organization. Employees can be motivated by ensuring their participation in decision making. They should be provided decision making authority in their areas of concern. It enhances employee to improve morale and team work which encourage employee to accept change and responsibility.
    3. Motivation through quality of work life (QWL): QWL is considered a philosophy as it is guided in a strong humanistic value. It is concerned with the quality of relationship between employees and the total working environment of the organization. QWL is the creation of environment where an employee can feel that his/her job is secured, s/he is satisfied with the job done and develops knowledge, skill and capable of meeting at least the basic financial obligation through working.
    4. Motivation through appropriate job design/ redesign: Beyond money and the different forms of financial rewards, there are other non-financial factors that strongly motivate employees at work. Some of the main techniques of motivating people through appropriate job design/ redesign include:
      • Job rotation: It is the process of motivating employees by moving them from one job to another for a short period of time. With a view to save employees from boredom and frustration caused by similar and repetitive jobs for a long time period, this type of job arrangement is useful to diversity activities for a certain time. However, job rotation does not expand the individual duties and responsibilities, rather it creates flexible working environment.
      • Job enlargement: This is the process of horizontal loading of the same nature of job into one job. This is done either by combining, two or more jobs into or by adding two or more takes to an existing job. Job enlargement will increases work efficiency and flexibility.
      • Job enrichment: Job enrichment refers to the vertical enlargement of a job by adding more responsibility and opportunity for personal growth. It is concerned with designing job that includes a greater variety of work content, require a higher level of knowledge and skill give worker more autonomy and responsibility. This will enhance employee commitment and satisfaction. Individual who have needs for personal power, achievement and goal setting can be more satisfied through applying this motivational approach of job design.

    Equity Theory of Motivation

    J. Stancy Adams propounded the Equity Theory of Motivation in 1963. It is based on the cognitive motivation theory. According to this theory, people want to be treated fairly in relation to other for motivation. Input and outcome ratio will help the individual to have an idea of being in a situation of equity or inequality. Inputs are the individual's efforts, responsibility and other factors that they put into the job, whereas outcomes are the promotion, pay raise, recognition of the work done in exchange for the inputs. Thus, the equity theory states that an individual compares his input/ outcomes to that of the other working in the same position in the organization or in other organizations and tries to establish equity. In the process of comparison, if the individual perceives any sort of inequity he or she will change his or her behavior at work.

    Positive Aspect: 
    • It helps in finding the equity between the groups so that group motivation is enhances. 
    • It helps in providing the fair pay to the employees as per their personal capabilities.
    • It helps in seeing whether people fell the inequity by jobs or the pay gives them.
    • It also determines how input and outcomes of a person can be matched.
    Negative Aspects:  
    • It cannot clearly provide the ideas, how to change the input and outcome of individual.
    • The equity between the people is almost impossible as it depends upon the personal perception of employees.
    • The input cannot be changed easily and the change in outcome can also become conflicting.
    • The equity theory can be useful only for the company having very small number of employee.

    Motivation

    Motivation originally comes from the Latin word movere, which means "to move". It is derived from the word "motive". Motive may be defined as an inner state of our mind that activates and directs our behavior. It makes us move to act. It is always internal to us and is externalized via behavior. Motivation is one's willingness to exert efforts towards the accomplishment of his/ her goal.
    Job performance is a function of employee ability plus motivation. Employee may possess necessary skills and abilities. But without lack of motivation employee cannot perform their work effectively. Motivation has great impact on employee performance. A well-motivate employee can contribute more to an organization. Thus, the duty of every rational manger is to create an environment to motivate the entire employee. Hence, in conclusion, motivation is the process to encourage employee in work and the effect to satisfy some individual need.

    Issue in Motivation
    The main issues in motivation are:
    1. Motivating to professional people: A typical employee today is more likely to be highly trained professional with a college degree than a blue-collar factory worker. These professionals receive a great deal of intrinsic satisfaction from their work. They tend to be well paid. They have strong long-term commitment to their field of expertise. Their loyalty is more often to their profession than to their employer. To keep current in their field they need to regular update their knowledge and their commitment to their profession.

    What motivates these professionals?
    Money and promotions typically are low on their priority list. Job challenge tends to be ranked high. They like to tackle problems and find solutions. They want other to think what they are working on is important. Although this may be true for all employees, because professionals tend to be more focused on their work as their central life interest, non professionals typically have other interests outside of work that can compensate for needs not met on the job.

    2. Motivating low-skilled service worker: These jobs are typically filled with people who have limited education and skill and little above minimum wage. Traditional approaches for motivating such people are providing them more flexible work schedules and filling their jobs with teenagers and tired whose financial needs is less.

    3. Motivating contingent or temporary worker: There is no simple solution for motivating temporary workers. An obvious solution is the opportunity for permanent status. In these cases in which permanent employees are selected form the pool of temporaries, temporaries will often work hard in hopes of becoming permanent. A less obvious solution is the opportunity for training.

    4. Motivating people with doing highly repetitive task: These are people who do standardized and repetitive jobs. Motivating individuals in these jobs can be made easier through careful selection. People vary in their tolerance for ambiguity.

    5. Motivating diversified work force: Today organization is equipped with different types of workforce like male, female, handicapped, disabled, black, white professional and non-professional etc. All the people won't be motivated by money, position and challenging job. Different people have different needs. This need should be identified and try to meet them to motivate diversified workforce.