Project Monitoring and Evaluation System of World Bank

Policy Action Matrix Modality is used to for project monitoring and evaluation of World Bank which involves:
  • The Appraisal report and loan document specify the performance benchmarks for the project. They are stated in the form of a policy action matrix or logical framework.
  • Monitoring of project progress is based on the trimester progress report and financial statements provided by the project management information system (PMIS). The local office of the World Bank also monitors the project as and when needed. Informal monitoring is done by telephone conversation and correspondence through mail, fax and E-mail.
  • The World Bank evaluates the project by collaborating with external consultants and its staffs. Missions are fielded for on-going evaluation every six month or annually. Project completion evaluation is also done.
  •  The evaluation mission leaves behind an aide memoir which serves as the blueprint for corrective actions and future activities of the project.
New M & E system of World Bank
Loan Administration Change Initiative (LACI)
The World Bank had introduced LACI (Loan Administration Change Initiative) for loan administration in July 1st 1998. Sound financial management is a prime factors of project success.
  • LACI (Loan Administration Change Initiative) integrates project accounting, procurement, contract management, disbursement and audit with physical progress through the Project Management Report (PMR).
  • There is the provision of quarterly payment to the special project based on Project Management Report (PMR) which replaces voucher-by-voucher payment method.
  • Loan Administration Change Initiative (LACI) applies to new projects. The implementation is on a project-by-project basis.
Monitoring and Evaluation under LACI (Loan Administration Change Initiative)
  1. The project task team conducts periodic progress reviews of the action plans through country missions.
  2. The task team leader is responsible for monitoring issues and needed actions.
  3. Project management report serves as the key document for monitoring purposes.

Logical Framework for M & E

A logical framework is generally used for monitoring evaluation. It evaluates cause and effect relationships as well as assumptions and risks of the project. The logical framework evaluates three sequential relationships:
  1. Inputs to Outputs: Outputs resulting from inputs, for example grain storage godown facility for a grain storage project.
  2. Outputs to Effects: Effects resulting from project outputs. For example reduction in grain losses as an effect of grain storage godown facility.
  3. Effects to Impacts: Impacts resulting from project effects. For example higher income to farmers as an impact of reduction in grain losses.
    • The assumptions and risks are evaluated as to their validity. These cannot be controlled by the project.
    • Performance benchmarks serve as the standards for monitoring and evaluation purposes.
    • A logical framework matrix for each project is prepared for planning, monitoring and evaluation purposes as shown in box:
    • Logical Framework Matrix
Key Concepts in the Logical Framework
  • Objective: This is the desired outcome of the project.
  • Purpose: This is the effect or impact of the project.
  • Outputs: These are the deliverable of the project as specified in the Terms of Reference.
  • Activities: These are the tasks that must be undertaken to accomplish outputs. They involve inputs in terms of money, human resources, equipment, materials etc.
  • OVIs: Objectively Verifiable Indicators are targets in  terms of quantity, quality, time to measure actual performance.
  • MOV: Means of Verification describe sources of information that provide the basis for monitoring and evaluation of the project. They are reports and publications related to project accomplished.
  • Assumptions and Risks: They are important external factors beyond the control of the project. Their validity is important for achieving project objective, purpose, outputs and activities.
M & E: Monitoring and Evaluation

Project Monitoring and Evaluation System of Asian Development Bank

  1. Monitoring: The monitoring system of progress of projects which is sponsored by Asian Development Bank is based on the Project Management Information System (PMIS). Periodic reports, accounting statements, statistical analysis and other related reports are produced through Project Management Information System (PMIS). It also specify the arrangements for provision of such reports and statements to Asian Development Bank (ADB) for monitoring project progress. The another way of monitoring done by the ADB through telephone contacts, correspondence and other methods as and when needed.
  2. Evaluation: The Appraisal Report and Loan Agreement specify arrangements for evaluation of project. The ADB uses field missions to evaluate the progress of the project. The various types of evaluation can be:
    • Appraisal: The mission evaluates the project's ability to succeed. An Appraisal Report is prepared which guides the project activities for implementation.
    • On-going Evaluation: The mission evaluates progress of the project during implementation phase. Corrective actions are recommended in the aide memoir prepared after evaluation. The timing of evaluation is as specified in the Loan Agreement or Appraisal Report. Generally, it is annual or half yearly.
    • Project Completion Evaluation: The mission evaluates the project after completion and prepares the "Project Completion Report". Lessons learned are presented which serve as guidelines for improvements of future projects.
    • Benefit Monitoring and Evaluation: ADB Loan Agreement also provides for benefit monitoring and evaluation.
      • Benefit monitoring provides information needed to ensure that services are delivered to and result in benefits to those whom the project is intended to benefit. The delivery, use and immediate effects of services provided are monitored.
      • Evaluation of benefits of completed projects provides information to improve the design and implementation arrangements for future projects.
      • Highly skilled, professional and independent consultants are hired to monitor and evaluate benefits.

Note:
ADB = Asian Development Bank
PMIS = Project Management Information System

Participatory Monitoring and Evaluation (M & E)

Monitoring and evaluation can be participatory where the progress, problems and prospects of the project are analyzed collaboratively by all project stakeholders. In donor funded development projects, active participation of beneficiaries is emphasized to assess effects and impacts of the project on them. Participatory monitoring and evaluation (M&E) is action oriented and cyclical in nature.

The key requirements of participatory evaluation are:
  1. Beneficiaries should be active participants, not just information providers.
  2. Stakeholders should actively  participate in carrying out monitoring and evaluation.
  3. Focus should be on building stakeholder capacity and commitment.
  4. The process should lead to improved implementation through corrective actions.
Stages in Participatory Monitoring and Evaluation (M&E)
Key stages in participatory M&E are:
  • Preparation: This involves:
    • Defining terms of reference for M&E
    • Identifying the stakeholders and a lead facilitator
    • Training to stakeholders.
  • Action planning: A time schedule is worked out.
  • Implementation of M&E: The cycle consists of :
    •  Self evaluation -->  Analysis --> Plan --> Act
  • Dissemination of M&E results:
    • PRA (Participatory Rural Appraisal), testimonials by beneficiaries and workshops can be used as methods for participatory M & E.

Project Monitoring and Evaluation

The process of collecting information to review the project implementation timely is known as monitoring. It is a continuous process of management of reviewing key factors of project implementation performance. It ensures that project inputs, schedules, outputs and other actions are proceeding according to the project plan. The monitoring of project is done during the project implementation phase. It is result oriented and benefits can also be monitored.

Monitoring is primarily aimed at tracking and improving project implementation. Problems are identified. Corrective actions are taken. It is a feedback mechanism. It is an internal activity in the project based on meetings and reports.

Evaluation is an objective and systematic judgmental process for determining relevance, efficiency, effectiveness and impact of project performance. It is assessment of project during implementation.

Evaluation is done to improve project implementation and to improve future project planning and decision making. It is an external activity in the project.

The objectives of project evaluation are:
  • To verify whether the project implementation progress is an planned.
  • To take corrective measures for deviations in performance.
  • To ascertain that actual costs are within the budgets.
  • To ensure that quality standards are being attained.
  • To report project progress status to customer as needed.
  • To identify unexpected problem areas and manage them.
  • To bring about overall improvement in project performance to achieve project objectives.
Evaluation can be of the following types:
  • On-going: Conducted during the implementation phase. Its purpose is to correct deficiencies as they occur to improve project performance.
  • Mid-Term: It is carried out mid-way during implementation. Its purpose is to improve implementation.
  • Terminal: It is conducted after project completion. It provides lessons for future project planning.
  • Ex-Post: It is conducted some years after project completion to evaluate the impact of the project.

Negotiation

The technique for solving project conflict is negotiation. Negotiation maintain the differences. It brings agreement. Most project conflicts tend to be related to rights, contractual obligations and environmental factors.

A project manager must have negotiating skills in order to settle the dispute and conflict in project. Negotiation is needed in the following conditions
  • Subcontractors are used in the project.
  • Functional departments are involved in the project through matrix structure.
  • Management of variations are needed after the project is underway.
Models of Negotiation
  1. Partnering: Projects enter partnering agreements through negotiation for outsourcing parts of project. This avoid litigation and promotes cooperation.
  2. Chartering: A project charter is used as a written agreement between the project manager and functional manager. It details the project outputs, budget, schedule and human resource requirements.
  3. Scope change: Agreement is reached for change in the scope of the project through negotiation.
Key principles of Negotiation
  • Separate the people from the problem: Tackle substantive problems. The project's objectives should not be harmed.
  • Allow honesty between the negotiators.
  • Aim for win-win solution. Invent options for mutual gain.
  • Insist on using objective criteria for negotiation.

Conflict Environment in Project

Conflict is an important element of the project environment.Project conflict arises out of mutual incompatibility in objectives, priorities, schedules, procedures, roles, values, interests or relationships. It is situational and varies from project to project, person to person, time to time and place to place. It varies in various phases of the project cycle.

Project conflict can be
  • Functional: It is issue-oriented, generally of technical and administrative nature. It can be beneficial to the project if focused on issues and creativity.
  • Personal: It is personality-oriented, resulting from animosities and deep-rooted personal feelings and attitudes. It is harmful to the project. It creates stress and spoils work climate.
Levels of Conflict
  1. Intra-individual: It occurs within the individual due to frustration, goal and role in incompatibility.
  2. Interpersonal: It occurs between two or more individuals due to competition for scare resources, goal and role disagreements and personality clashes.
  3.  Intergroup: It occurs between groups due to structure, goals or roles incompatibility. Groups can be formal or informal.
  4. Interproject: It occurs between projects due to competition or policy issues.
Causes of Project Conflicts
  1. Goal Differences: Differences in goals cause conflict. Individuals in the same group may have different goals. Project priorities and schedules also cause conflict.
  2. Unclear Relationships: Lack of clarity in authority responsibility relationships cause conflicts. Projects may lack clarity in Linear Responsibility Chart (LRC). Technical and administrative authorities may be unclear.
  3. Limited Resources: Competition for limited resources also cause conflict. They can be human, equipment, material, money, information etc.
  4. Structural Changes: Changes in project structure may cause conflict. Change and conflict go together. Changes in procedures also create conflicts.
  5. Schedule Changes: Project schedule changes also cause conflicts. For example, night shifts may be resented by employees. Unclear schedules also cause conflicts.
  6. Communication Breakdown: It is a major source of conflict in projects. Unfounded rumors cause conflict.
  7. Project Climate: Power struggle and in-fighting in the project also cause conflicts. So can sexual harassment and deprivation of rights.
  8. Personality Clashes: Differences in values, attitudes, interests and personalities cause conflict. Aggressive people in project invariably cause conflict. Remote control by functional managers also causes conflict.
  9. Expertise: Projects are characterized by diversity of expertise. Differences of technical opinions also create conflicts.

Time Management Techniques

  1. Clarity in Goal: For managing time, there should be clarity in goal. In this, all should understand what is expected from them.
  2. Work Plan: There should be allocation work clearly to team members. Project activities should be defined and sequenced. Time duration for each activity should be estimated. A schedule should be developed and controlled for project activities.
  3. Use Daily Planner: Preparation of to do list and regular update is necessary.
  4. Daily Record: Maintenance of daily record like time log. Analyze it to prioritize work and to locate unproductive time. Find ways to improve next day's work.
  5. Use Dead Time: Effectively use dead time wasted in waiting for appointments and meetings.
  6. Avoid time stealers:
    • Control telephone calls and casual visitors in the project.
    • Avoid information overload by managing its flow.
    • Avoid unnecessary meetings and agenda-less meeting.
    •  Improve communication channels.
    • Avoid decision delays and give clear instructions to subordinates.
    • Manage conflicts effectively.
    • Insist on well done and completely done jobs.
  7. Use Time Saving Technology: Computers, Internet, fax, teleconferencing etc. save time. Information technology is a time saver. make use of them.
  8. Organize Work Life: Project manager should organize his work life by:
    • Learning to say no to jobs not liked.
    • Keeping the work desk clutter-free.
    • Knowledge of energy cycle and blocking times for creative work.
    • Setting deadlines for activity completion.
    • Focusing on one thing at a time.
    • Practicing calculated neglect.
    • Doing difficult tasks first.
    • Learning to relax.
    • Conducting meeting effectively.
    • Managing risks effectively.
  9. Delegate: After getting appropriate time, delegate it. Create project-wise awareness for effective time management.
  10. Ask three questions for Time Management:
    1. Do I have to do this work at all?
    2. Can somebody else do this work better?
    3. Are my priorities right.

Essential Factors for Time Management in Project

The time management in project is very essential. It is bounded with time, cost and quality. The successful attainment of project will depend on the successful completion of the project. The following factors are essential for time management in project.
  1. Goal Clarity: The project objective and outcomes should be clearly defined.
    • Project activities should be prioritized.
    • Authority-responsibility relationships should be clearly defined. 
  2. Time Management Awareness: Project manager and members of the project team should be aware about their
    • Working style
    • Work habits
    • Personal traits
  3. Knowledge of Time Stealers: Time stealers in project can be;
    • Too many meetings and dead time in waiting.
    • Too many interruptions while doing work.
    • Uncontrolled telephone calls and visitors.
    • Information overload and poor retrieval system.
    • Poor  communication channels.
    • Decision delays and unclear instructions.
    • Incomplete or poorly done work.
    • Failure to delegate.
    • Inability to manage conflicts.
  4. Procedures for Project Related Work: Time management requires laying down of procedures for:
    • Evaluation of bids.
    • Preparation of Work Breakdown Structures, sequencing of activities, development and control of project schedule, revision of project schedule.
    • Estimation of time and resources for various activities.
    • Measurement of project performance and reporting.
    • Monitoring and follow-up, including auditing.

Time Management in Project

A project has a fixed completion date. But the project environment is uncertain. Many of the difficulties encountered in managing projects are caused by lack of effective time management. Time management is one of the keys of effective project implementation.

Time is one of the very scarce resource in project management. If the time is lost then it is lost forever. So, time management is very important for successful attainment of project's objectives. It helps to be done more works with less time.

The processes  of time management in project are:
  1. Activity Definition: It identifies specific activities required to produce project outcomes. Work breakdown structure is a useful tool for defining project activities.
  2. Activity Sequencing: It identifies interactivity dependencies. Project network diagram is a useful tool for sequencing of activities.
  3. Activity Duration: It estimates the time needed to complete individual activities. Resource requirements are estimated for each activity.
  4. Schedule Development: It creates project schedule. It determines start and finish data for all project activities. It is based on activity sequencing and time estimates of activities. It is a project time table.
  5. Schedule Control: It is measuring, evaluating and correcting project's timely performance. It is managing schedule changes as and when they occur. Project progress reports are useful for schedule control.

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