- Individual differences: People have much in common (they become excited or they are grieved by the loss of loved one), but each person in the world is also individual different. The idea of individual differences comes originally from psychology. From the day of birth, each person is unique and individual experiences after birth make people even more different. Individual difference means the management can get the greatest motivation among employees by treating them differently. Individual differences require that justice and rightness with employees shall be individual not statistical. The idea of individual differences is supported by science. Each person is different from all others, probably in millions of ways, just as each person's DNA profile is different as far as we know. And these differences are usually substantial rather than meaningless. As for example, a person of billion brain cells and the billions of possible combinations of connections and bit of experiences that are stored there. All people are different and this diversity needs to be recognized and viewed as a valuable asset to organizations.
- A whole person: Although some organization's may wish they could employ only a person's skill, all that they can employ is a whole person, rather than certain separate characteristics. Different human traits may be separately studied, but in the final analysis they are all part of one system making up a whole person. Skill does not exist apart from background or knowledge. Home life is no totally separable from work life and emotional conditions are not separate from physical conditions. People function as total human beings.
- Motivated behavior: From psychology, we learn that normal behavior has certain causes. They may relate to a person's needs or the consequences that result from acts. In the case of needs, people are motivated not by what we think they ought to have but by what they themselves want. To an outside observer, a person's needs may be unrealistic. But they are still controlling. This fact leaves management with two basic ways to motivate people. It can show them how certain actions will increase their need fulfillment is the better approach, Motivation is essential to the operation of organizations. No matter how much technology and equipment an organization has, these resources cannot be use until they are released and guided by people who have been motivated.
- Desire for involvement: Many employees today are actively seeking opportunities at work to become involved in relevant decisions. Thereby contributing their talents and ideas to the organization's success. They are hunger for the chance to share what they know and to learn from the experiences. Consequently, organizations need to provide opportunities for meaningful involvement. This can be achieved through employee empowerment - a practice that will result in mutual benefit for both parties.
- Perception: People look at the world and see things differently. Even when presented with the same object, two people may view it in tow different ways. Their view of their objective environment is filtered by perception. This is the unique way in which each person sees, organizes and interprets things, people use an organized framework that they have built out of a lifetime of experience and accumulated values. Having unique view in another way in which people insist on acting like human beings rather than rational machines. Employees see in their personalities, needs, demographic factors, and past experiences, or they may find themselves in different physical setting, time periods or social surrounding. Therefore, a rational manager must learn to expect perceptual differences among their employees, accept people as emotional beings, and manage them in individual ways.
- Value of the person (human dignity): People deserve to be treated differently from other factors of production (i.e. land, capital, resources and technology) because they are of a higher order in the universe. Because of this distinction, they want to be treated with caring, respect, and dignity; they demand such treatment from their employers. They refuse to accept the old idea that they are simply economic tools. They want to be valued for their skills and abilities and to provide with opportunities to develop themselves.
Nature of People
There are six basic assumptions about the nature of people which are described below
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