The steps for project implementation are:
- Preparing for project implementation
- Engaging and supervising consultants
- Contracting for civil works
- Procurement of goods, services, equipments
- Supervision of equipment installation and civil works
- Receiving project budget
- Monitoring and control
The steps for implementation are
a) Establishing the project office: The project office is established at the project site. All physical and logistics facilities needed in an office are provided.
b) Acquisition of Human Resources: Project success depends on the competency and efficiency of the project team. Needed employees are acquired here.
c) Defining and assigning responsibilities: Every member of project team is provided with a job description specifying
- Duties and responsibilities
- Accountability for results
2. Engaging and supervising consultants
Projects generally use consultants for specialized activities, such as:
- Engineering design preparation and review
- Preparation and review of bidding document
- Evaluation of bids
- Supervision of civil construction works
- Other specialized activities etc
Contractors play an important role in implementation. Projects involve a lot of contracting and subcontracting for civil construction works.
- Guidelines, procedures, financial rules and regulations are followed for contracting of civil works. Generally, selection of contractors is based on:
- Tender document
- Pre-qualification of contractors
- Notice for call of tender bids. A pre-bid meeting is held.
- Evaluation of tender bids and selection of contractor.
- Contract agreement with the selected contractor.
- If the project is donor refunded, the guidelines prescribed by the donors must be followed for award of the contract.
Projects require procurement of goods, services and equipments. The financial rules and regulations and guidelines for procurement are followed. Minimum standard of workmanship specified for services are followed:
- Procurement can be through:
- direct purchase from the market
- quotation based, generally three quotations are required
- tender based which can be local, national or global
- Specifications should be complied for procurement purposes.
The installation of machinery and equipment by the suppliers is properly supervised. Project consultants and technical personnel of the project generally carry out the job of supervision.
6. Receiving project budget
The financial resources for the project are acquired from the donor or customer. Arrangements are made with banks for overdraft in cases of emergencies.
7. Monitoring and control
The project performance is properly monitored and controlled during implementation. The project performance is measured, evaluated and corrected.
Monitoring involves project progress reporting. Projects require periodic reporting of progress for feedback. Monitoring provides information about:
- physical targets and achievements
- financial targets and achievements
- scheduling targets and achievements
- problems encountered in project implementation
- possible solutions for solving the problems
Project costs should be effectively controlled. Standard costing and budgetary control tools are used for controlling costs. Cost is an important constraint in the project. Cost escalations should be prevented. Material cost should be effectively controlled.
8. Controlling project changes
Environmental changes and technological uncertainties necessitate changes in project design and time table. The implications of such changes on cost, time and quality are carefully studied.