The Dynamics of Inter-Group Conflict

When conflicts takes place within inter group i.e. conflict between one group to another, the following dynamism can be seen in the group.
1. Changes within each group: When there will be inter-group conflict, the following changes seen within each group. Each group now try to make the strong to meet the hurdles created, by other group. So, there will be the following five major changes within each group. The changes are:
  • Loyalty to the group becomes more important: In the face of an external threat, the group demands more loyalty from individual members. Not only is social interaction with people outside the group not encouraged; it is expressly discouraged. Such interaction could lend to inadvertent betrayal of group strategy and secrets. Deviance is more closely monitored and punished.
  • There is increase concern for task accomplishment: When there will be inter conflict, the group member now becomes more concern for task accomplishment. There will be less informal relation among group members but high formal relation among group members.
  • Leadership in the group becomes more autocratic: When inter group conflict is present it is especially important for a group to be able to respond quickly and in a unified manner to the activities of other groups. A democratic work style can reduce the group’s capacity respond quickly.
  • The organization and structure of the group becomes more rigid: After the inter-group conflict among the groups, each group, is concern of making the group more effective there will be rigid organizational structure. They build up formal relation rather than informal relation. This makes them more task concern. Task will be high valued first and then after people will be concerned.
  • Group cohesiveness (degree of unity) increased: In the face of an external threat, past differences and difficulties between group members are forgotten. The group closes ranks to meet the challenge. Individual group members find both the group as whole and other group members more attractive.
2. Changes in Relations between groups:
  • Interaction and communication between group decreases.
  • There are distortions of perception, both one’s own group and about the other group.
  • There is a shift from a problem-solving orientation toward other groups to win lose orientation.
  • There is increased hostility forward the rival group.

Inter-Group Conflict

The nature of the relationship between groups also changes markedly during inter group conflicts. Four changes in particular occur at this time.
1. There are distortions of perception, both one’s own group and about the other group. First, perception of one’s own group is highly selective: people see only the best aspects of their own group and deny any weakness in their own group’s performance. Second, and more important, perception of the other groups is systematically distorted: groups see only the worst parts of other groups and deny other groups positive accomplishments. Thus, inter group conflict leads to increased use of stereotypes. Each group develops more positive stereotype of itself and a more negative of other.

2. Interaction and communication between groups decreased. Because group members feel hostile toward members of rival groups, there is less desire for interaction with them. Moreover, decreased interaction makes it easier for each group to maintain its negative stereotype of the other.

Even when groups are forced to interact with each other, those interactions become fairly rigid and formal. Whatever information is passed between groups is very carefully rationed and sometimes deliberately distorted. Groups tend to ignore the similarities between their positions and exaggerate the differences.

3. There is a shift from problem-solving orientation toward other groups to win lose orientation. There various facts to this shift in orientation. First, there is a much clearer distinction drawn between the groups, resulting in a “We- they” rather than a “We- versus” – the problem orientation. Second, all exchange with the other groups are evaluated in terms of victory or defeat. Third, the groups tend to see the problem only from their own point of view, rather than in terms of the needs of both groups. Fourth, the parties emphasize the benefits of winning the conflict in the short run and tend to ignore the long-term consequences of the conflict for the relationship between the groups.

4. There is increased hostility toward the rival group. As a result of negative stereotyping, decreased communication between groups, and win lose orientation, increased hostility inevitably occur between rival groups. Members of the other group are seen as the enemy, and deserving of hostile attacks. Major types of inter-group conflict are follows:
  • a) Functional conflict: Conflict that supports the goals of the groups and improve its performance.
  • b) Dys-functional conflicts: Conflict that hinders group performance.
  • c) Task conflict: Conflict based on interpersonal relationships.
  • d) Process conflict: Conflicts over how work gets done.

Elements of Communication Process

The process of communication includes the following seven elements. These are shown in figure. Each of these components needs due elaboration.
  1. Communicator: The communication process begins with an intended message to communicate. The characteristics of the communicator influence the communication process. For example, while a sensitive communicator will look at the communication process from the receiver’s perspective, an insensitive one will be primarily concerned with his/her own interest. 
  2. Encoding: It refers to converting a communication message into symbolic form. Encoding is necessary because information can only be transmitted from communicator to receiver through symbols or gestures.
  3. Message: The message is the actual physical product from the source of encoding. When we speak, the speech is the message. When we write, the writing is the message. When we gesture, the movements of our arms, the expressions on our face are the message. Thus, message is what is communicated.
  4. Medium: Medium is a channel through which a communication message travels. Medium is the link that connects the communicator (sender) and the receiver. Face to face verbal communication, use of telephone, use of memorandum, notice, circulars, statements, etc. are the various means available as media of communication. Besides, non-verbal media like signals, symbols, gestures, etc. may also be used. The choice of medium assumes significance as the use of proper medium also determines the effectiveness of communication.
  5. Decoding: Translating the sender’s message by the receiver is called decoding. Decoding is the process by which the receiver draws meaning from the symbols encoded by the communicator or sender. One’s knowledge, attitude, and cultural background influence one’s ability to encode or receive, just as they do the ability to send.
  6. Receiver: The person who receives the message is called receiver. The communication process is incomplete without the existence of receiver of message. Communication to be effective needs to be receiver-oriented.
  7. Feedback: The actual response of the receiver to the message communicated to him is known as “feedback”. In other words, if a communicator or sender decodes the message that he encodes if the message is put back into his system, we have feedback. Feedback enables the communicator to check whether or not the message received has been properly understood by the receiver.
Importance of Communication Management
The need or importance of communication is felt for the following reasons: 
  1. Adequate and timely communication helps managers discharge their functions of planning, organizing, staffing, directing and controlling.
  2. Effective communication ensures willing cooperation of others. This, in turn, contributes positively to the quality of decisions.
  3. Communication by flowing information throughout the organization maintains coordination of activities across departments in the organization.
  4. A good communication system communicating quality information contributes positively to the quality of decisions.
  5. Effective communication also helps in moulding attitudes and building up employee morale. It also helps in developing harmonious labor management relations.

Overcome of Barriers to Communication

In view of the barriers to effective communication, the following specific suggestions can be made to ensure the effectiveness of communication:
  1. Language: Experience suggests that complex language, technical terms, and jargon make communication difficult to understand and frustrating to the listener. It is not true that complex ideas require complex words to explain them. Hence, while preparing the communication message, its language should be relatively simple and the ability of the receiver to interpret the message accurately should be kept in view. Efforts should be made to explain abstract ideas and avoid the vague expressions.
  2. Regulating the Flow of Communication: Priority of messages to be communicated should be determined so that the managers may concentrate on more important messages of high priority similarly, the messages received should be edited and condensed to the extent possible, to reduce the chances of overlooking or ignoring important messages.
  3. Feedback: Communication is complete when it receives feedback. Feedback may include the receiver’s response in terms of acceptance and understanding of the message, his/her action, and the result achieved. Thus, the two-way communication is considered to be more helpful in establishing mutual understanding than one-way communication.
  4. Repetition: Repetition of message helps improve effectiveness of communication. It helps the listener interpret messages that are ambiguous, unclear or too difficult to understand the first time they are heard. Repetition also helps avoid the problem of forgetting. A popular strategy to help the managers remember the main points is “Tell them what you are going to tell them, then tell them what you have told them.”
  5. Restraint Over Emotions: As strong feelings and emotions on the part of either the sender or receiver of the message distort the meaning of the message. One may, therefore, defer the communication for some time. He/she should response to communication with a composed mind only.
  6. Mutual Trust and Faith: Communication becomes effective having mutual and faith between the sender and receiver of the message. The honesty of the purpose is the best means breeding trust and faith between the two parties, i.e. sender and receiver.
  7. Listening Carefully: Misunderstanding and confusion are often caused by the half-hearted attention to the communication. Therefore, a receiver-listener needs to be patient mentally well composed, and avoid distractions while receiving the message. He/she should seek clarification, if necessary, on the message. At the same time, the sender of the message must also not be prepared to listen to what the receiver has to say, and respond to his questions, if any. 
  8. Pygmalion Effect: In the ancient Greek mythology, a sculptor named Pygmalion craved the statue of a most beautiful woman. The result was so perfect that the sculptor fell in love it the statue and sat in front of it for a long time. He sat in front of it hoping that someday the statue will come to life- and it ultimately happened. Since then, this is called the ‘Pygmalion Effect’. Thus, the Pygmalion effect refers to power of one’s expectation. In other words, people’s expectation determines their behavior. Let it be clarified wit an example. If a professor believes that a particular student is not very hard working and sincere, then all his/her communication, be it verbal or non-verbal, will communicate this message to the student. What will happen is in the long run, a perfectly hard-working student may become lazy and insincere.

Concept of Communication Networks

Communication network can be defined as the channel through which information flow. Different parts of organization are linked together through communication network. Just for a simple example INTERPOL i.e. International Police Organization has its network in worldwide to capture terrorist.

 
In the case of management, there are five common communication networks which are as follows:
1. Chain: Where one person transmits information to another as per the chain in the organizational hierarchy. For example, the president informs the vice-president who then passes on the information to the head of the department and so on.

President --> Vice President --> Department Head Managers --> Unit In-charge --> Supervisor --> Layman

2. Wheel or Star: Here one personal (supervisor for instance) can communicate with (say) four subordinates, but the subordinates do not communicate with each other.
3. Circle: Where each member can interact with the adjoining member.
4. All- Channel: Where each of the individuals can communicate with all other.
5. Inverted Y: Where two people report to a boss, who has two levels above and the communication shown in the pattern shown in figure below:

Issues Confronted by Organizations in Communication

There are four major issues in communication and they are as follows.
  1. Why do men and women often have difficulty in communicating with each other?
  2. What are the implications of the “politically correct” movement on communications and organizations?
  3. How can individuals improve their cross-cultural communication?
  4. How is electronics changing the way people communicate with each other in organizations?
Issue No.1: Communication barriers between men and women:
According to tannin’s research, men use to talk to emphasize status, while women use it to create connection. Men are often more direct than women. Men frequently complain that women talk on and on about their problems while women criticize men for not listening. When men hear about the problem, they frequently assert their desire for independence and control by offering the solutions. Women usually present the problem to gain support and connection, to promote closeness with men but not take his advice this creates a distancing between them.

Issue No.2: Politically correct communication:
Words are the primary means by which people communicate. When we eliminate words form usage between they are politically more incorrect, we reduce our options for conveying messages in the clearest and most accurate form. We must be sensitive to how our choice of words might offend others.

Issue No.3: Cross-cultural communication:
Cross-cultural communication has been another current issues in communication. Languages differ as per culture. The same work means different things to different people. A gesture that is understood and acceptable in one culture may be meaningless in another culture. The language they use also differs in different culture. In some culture, some formal languages are used, while in some culture, frequently in formal languages are used. This is due to cross-cultural effect. People from different culture also view the work in different ways. This is due to cross cultural effect. People from different culture also view the world in different ways. Thus, due to cross cultural effect, there may cause barriers in communications.

Issue No.4: Electronic communication: Organizational boundaries become less relevant as a result of electronic communication. Electronic communication such as cellular phones, pager, now allows accessing the desired person at any time and at any place of the world. The line between an employee’s work and non-work life is no longer distinct. Networked computers in an office allow the employees to share the files and jump vertical levels within the organization.

Electronic communications have revolutionized both the ability to access other people and to reach them almost instantaneously. Unfortunately this access and speed have come with some costs. Electronic mail, for instance does not provide the non-verbal communication components that face-to-face meeting does.

Importance of Communication within the Management Group

Communication is an essential function and an important problem of management. Since the job of a rational manager is to secure the willing co-operation of his subordinates in the accomplishment of goals, communication is an indispensable part of management. Communication is a continuous and pervasive activity and a manager spends the major portion of his time in communicating. To be more specific communication offers the following advantages.
  1. Basis of decision-making: Communication is essential for decision making and planning. The quality of managerial decisions depends on the quality of communication. At the same time, decision and plans of management need to be communicated to the subordinates. Effective communication is also helpful in the proper implementation of plans and policies of the management. It is the basis of effective leadership because it makes the leader’s idea and opinions known to the subordinates.
  2. Facilitates co-ordination: Communication is the most effective means of creating cooperation among individual efforts. Exchange of ideas and information helps to bring about unity of action in the pursuit of common purpose. Communication binds people together.
  3. Sound industrial relations: Effective communication helps to create mutual understanding and trust between the employer and the employees. It enables the management to come into close contact with workers. It serves as a bridge between management and labour and creates team spirit in the organization. Thus, an effective communication system is a prerequisite of good labour management relations.
  4. Smooth and efficient operations: An effective communication system serves as a lubricant, fostering the smooth and efficient functioning of the enterprise. The achievement of enterprise goals is of paramount importance and communication is one of the important tools available to the manager seeking to attain them. It is through communication that a manager changes and regulates the behavior of subordinates in the desired direction. Effective communication promotes managerial efficiency.
  5. Industrial democracy: Communication is essential for worker’s participation in management. It is helpful in delegation and decentralization of authority. Effective communication is the basis of training and development of managerial personnel. The process of leadership itself depends upon effective communication.
  6. Employee motivation and morale: Through communication, management can keep the employees fully informed of plans, job changes, etc. The motivation and morale of employees tend to be high when they clearly understand what they are supposed to do. Communication is the means by which employees can brings their suggestions, difficulties and grievances to the notice of the management. Upward communication ensures greater job satisfaction and stimulates worker’s enthusiasm and loyalty to the enterprise. Effective communication satisfies personal and social needs of employees.
  7. Public relations: In the today’s time, every business enterprises must create and maintain a good corporate image in the society. Communication is an indispensable means of developing a favorable public opinion. It is through communication that management can keep cordial relations with the government, trade unions, customer and the community.
Thus, communication is the heart of the management process. It serves as the nerve system of the organization.

Interactive Communication

The word Communication is derived from the Latin word ‘Communis’ which means common. If a person affects a communication, he has established a common ground of understand. Thus communication involves imparting the common meaning in another person. The interactive communication is defines as two way communication where message receiver and sender interactive each other and reach to a decision. Interactive communication is better than one way communication as it provides, the opportunity to know employees responses ideas and suggestion to utilize in new decision and to implement the decision of the right time by right person in the right manner. Management at 21st century is using this type of communication to support participating management.

Techniques of Securing Effective Employee Communication in Organization
Communication is effective when the intended or sent message is the same as the interpreted or received message. Two-way communication is one of the ways in which more effective communication can be facilitated. Research in different fortune organizations, who have changed their communication pattern to achieve success, following factors is to be taken into consideration for making effective communication.
  1. Seeking to clarify the idea before communication: The more systematically we analyze the problem or idea to be communicated the clearer it becomes. 
  2. Following up the communication: This we can do by asking questions, by encouraging the receiver to express his reactions, by follow up contacts, by subsequent review of performance. We must make certain that every important communication has a feedback so that complete understanding and appropriate action result.
  3. Examining the true purpose of each communication: Before we communicate, it is better to ask to ourselves what we really want to be accomplish with our message-obtain information, initiate action, change other person’s attitude etc. The sharpener the focus of our message the greater the chance of its success.
  4. Consider the total physical and human setting wherever we communicate: Meaning and intent are conveyed by more than words alone. Many other factor influences the overall impact of a communication and the manager must be sensitive to the total setting in which he communicates.
  5. Consulting with others, where appropriate, in planning communication: Frequently, it is desirable or necessary to seek the participation of other in planning a communication or developing the facts on which to base it. Such consultation often helps to lend additional insight and objectivity to our message.
  6. Being sure of own actions support our communications: In the final analysis, the most persuasive kind of communication is not what we say but what we do? When a man’s actions or attitudes contradict his words, we tend to discount what he has said.

Behavioral Theories of Leadership

The theory is based on the promise that effective leadership is the result of effective role behavior. Success in leadership depends more on what the leader does than on his traits. A leader uses technical, conceptual and human skills to influence the behavior of his subordinate. Leadership therefore, becomes a dynamic interaction between the leader and the led.

The behavioral theory is useful in so far it suggests the functions and activities of a leader.

Ohio State Studies
In 1945, a group of researchers at Ohio state university began extensive investigations of leadership. The central focus of their work was to study in depth the work of a leader. Their effort uncovered many things concerning leadership behavior. The most publicized aspect of Ohio state leadership was the isolation of two dimensions of leadership behavior.

  1. Initiating structure: A high initiating structure score indicates that leaders structures their role those of subordinates towards the attainment of goals. They are actively involved in planning work activities, communicating pertinent information and scheduling work. 
  2. Consideration: A leaders who were high on the consideration dimension reflected that they had developed a work atmosphere of mutual trust, respect for subordinate’s ideas and consideration of subordinate’s feelings. Such leaders encouraged good superior subordinate rapport and two-way communication. A low consideration score indicates that leaders are more impersonal in their dealing with subordinates.
University of Michigan Studies
The study showed that Employee-oriented Leaders (EOL) were associated with higher group productivity and higher job satisfaction on the other hand, Production-Oriented Leader (POL) tend to be associated with low group productivity and lower job satisfaction.

Where, we mean
Employee-oriented leaders (EOL) – One who emphasizes interpersonal relation.
Production-oriented leaders (POL) – One who emphasizes technical or task aspects of the job.

The Managerial Grid
The concept of managerial grid was created by R.R. Blake and Jane S. Mouton of USA. They emphasize that leadership style consists of facts of both task oriented and relation oriented behavior in varying degrees.

They have used two phrases: 
  1. Concern for production means the attitudes of the supervisors towards a variety of factor concerning production, such as product, procedures, and processes, quality of staff service, workload, efficiency and quantity of production. 
  2. Concern for people includes degree of personal commitment towards goal achievement, maintaining the self-esteem of workers, responsibility and conductibility based on trust rather than on force and satisfying interpersonal relations.

Leadership

Leadership is the process of influencing other towards the accomplishment of goals. It is the ability of a manager to induce subordinates to work with confidence and zeal. A key to effective leadership is helping followers to achieve their respective essentials goals as well as their maximum potentialities. Dynamic leader, therefore, should have the ability to awaken in other the desire to follow a common objective in a given situation, leadership thus, is a function of the leader, the followers and other situational variables.
L = F(I, F, S)
Leadership does not flourish in vacuum. It always envisages followers. Further leadership envisages the idea of interpersonal influence.

Difference between managers and leaders are:
Managers Leaders
1. Who direct the work of employees and is responsible for results. 1. Who cope with changes.
2. A manager is appointed and after that get a position. 2. A leader emerges emergence depends a number of situational factors.
3. A manager seeks those objectives, which his subordinates do not regard as their own. Thus there is clash of objectives. 3. A leader generally seeks those objectives, which are the objectives of his subordinates. Thus, there is mutuality of objectives between leader and his followers.
4. Manage complexity through planning and budgeting i.e. setting goals, establishing steps to achieve them and then allocate resources to achieve them. 4. Sets a direction or vision of what the future might look like and then develop strategies to produce changes needed to achieve that vision or direction.
5. Ensure that employees reach their goal by controlling their behavior i.e. they monitor the result by means of reports and meetings and note derivations from the goals. 5. Requires 'motivating and inspiring teams of employees' taps their needs values and emotions.
6. Achieve their goals by 'organizing and staffing' creating an organizational structure and sets of jobs for accomplishing the plans requirements. Staffing the jobs with qualified employees communicating the goals and monitoring the progress. 6. Try to align employees who share their vision create teams who understand and share their vision.                             

Issues in Leadership

The following are the major and important contemporary issues in leadership.
Issue No.1: Gender issue: Do males and females lead differently?
Research has shown that regardless of gender, people will traits associated with leadership- such as intelligence, confidence, and sociability- are more likely to be perceived as leaders. However, there is found some differences in leadership styles. For example, males tend to use a directive command and control style, while females tend to adopt a more democratic leadership style.

Issue No.2: Is there a biological basis for leadership?
There is increasing evidence indicating that leadership has biological roots. Two chemicals-serotonin and testosterone are found to have profound effect on becoming a leader. Increased levels of serotonin appear to improve sociability and control aggregation. Higher levels of testosterone increase competitive drive and they are found higher in the players like tennis.


Issue No.3: How does national culture affect the choice of leadership style?
National culture affects leadership style by way of the subordinate. Leaders cannot choose their styles at will. They are constrained by the cultural conditions that their subordinates have come to expect. For example, an autocratic style is compatible with high power distance and participation style is compatible with low power distance.

Issue No.4: How is the current popularity of empowerment affecting the way managers lead?
Empowerment is putting employees in charge of what they do. The problem with the current empowerment movement is that it ignores the extent to which leadership can be shared and the conditions facilitating success of shared leadership. Because of factors such as downsizing, higher employee skills commitment of organizations to continuous training, implementation of total quality management programs and introduction of self-managed teams, there seems to be no doubt that an increasing number of situations call for a more empowering approach to leadership.

Issue No.5: Since leaders are not leaders until they have followers, what can managers do to make employees more effective followers?
Successful organizations need effective follower, who can follow effective and efficient leaders. Following are some qualities of effective followers:
  • They manage themselves well. They can work independently and without close supervision.
  • They build their competence and focus their efforts for maximum impact.
  • They are committed to a purpose outside themselves.
  • They are courageous, honest and credible. They are critical thinkers who knowledge and judgement can be trusted.
Issue No.6: Is there a moral dimension to leadership:
Leadership is not value free. So we should look at the moral content of a leader’s goal and the means he/she uses to achieve those goals.

Main Focus of Traits Theories of Leadership

The trait theory of leadership states that there are certain identifiable qualities or characteristics that are unique to leaders and that good leader possess such qualities to some extent. The trait theories identifiable a long list of qualities which leader posses. The following list is only illustrative and not exhaustive. 
  • Intelligence: Good leaders should be intelligent enough to understand the context and content of their position and function, to group the dynamics of environmental variables, both internal and external, which affect their activities and to have a goods perspective of the present and future dimensions of their organization. 
  • Personality: This is not to be confused with physical appearance, though it is important. More than outward appearance, certain inner-personality qualities mark out goods leaders from others. Such qualities include emotional stability and maturity. Self-confidence, decisiveness, strong drive, optimum, purposefulness, discipline, skill in getting along with others, integrity in character and a tendency to be cooperative. These qualities tend to help leaders to organize and co-ordinate human effort, to guide and motivate people in talk situations, to make sound decisions, to achieve concrete results and goals, to organizational goals. 
  • Other Qualities: A part from intelligence and personality attributes, good leaders also possess a few qualities like open mindedness, scientific spirit, social sensitively, ability to communicate, objectivity, an abiding interest in people, pragmatism and a sense of realism.

Main Focus of Behavioral Theories of Leadership  
According to the behavioral theories of leadership, leadership can be described in terms of what leaders do rather than what they are. In other words, leadership can be identified by reference to their behavior in relation to the followers. Behavioral theories have been presented mostly on the basis of research studies.

Behavioral theories differ from the trait theories in at least two ways. First, actual leader behaviors, not the personal traits are the main focus. Second, while most trait theories endeavored to distinguish between leader and non leaders, behavioral theories attempted to determine how different kinds of behavior affect the performance and satisfaction of the followers.

Emerging Approaches to Leadership

Leadership is a term that conjures up different images in different people while to some it means charisma, to other, it means power and authority. Leadership skills emerge out of spontaneity and contagion needs, spontaneity refers to the need for initiating a wide range of activities or creating opportunities for other with a view to influence people. In contracts, people with contagion needs are influenced by others and will develop leadership skills. In fact, effective leadership is the mixture of both needs.

Leadership thus, plays a crucial role in organizational dynamics. It fill many of the voids left in conventional organization design, allows for greater organizational flexibilities and responsiveness to environmental changes, provides a way to coordinate the effort of diverse groups within the organization, and facilitates organizational membership and personal needs satisfaction. It is the quality of managerial leadership that often differentiates effective from ineffective organizations. Therefore, rational leader should know different emerging approach of the leadership and also they should be aware of current issue in leadership.

There are different approaches emerging in the field of leadership. Some of them are:
  1. Attribution theory of leadership: It deals with people trying to make sense out of cause-effect relationships. When something happens, they want to attributes it to something. This theory tells that leadership is merely an attribution that people make about other individuals. Effective leaders are generally considered consistent or unwavering in their decisions. 
  2. Charismatic leadership theory: Followers make attributions of heroic or extraordinary abilities when they observe certain behaviors. Some examples of charismatic leaders are John F. Kennedy, Martin Luther King, Jr. Walt Disney, Ted Turner, Barack Obama etc. They are found to have extremely high confidence, dominance and strong convictions in his or her beliefs.
  3. Transactional or transformational leadership: Transactional leaders guide or motive their followers in the direction of established goals and clarifying role and task requirements. Transactional leader, on the other hand, inspired followers to transcend their own self-interests for the good of the organization, and they are capable of having a profound and extraordinary effect on his or her followers. Transformational leadership is about leading, changing the organizations strategies and culture so that they have a better bit with the surrounding environment. They are change agents who energies employees and direct them to a new set of corporate values and behaviors.
  4. Visionary leadership: The ability to create and articulate a realistic, credible, attractive vision of the future for an organization unit that grows out of and improves upon the present. This vision, if properly selected and implemented, is so energizing that leads to great success of the organization. A vision has clear and compelling imagery that offer an innovative way to improve, which recognizes and draws on traditions, and connects to action that people can take to realize change. Vision taps people’s emotions and energy, properly articulated a vision creates the enthusiasm that people have for sporting events and other leisure time activities, binging the energy and commitment to the workplace.

Leadership Styles

A leader’s typical way of behaving towards group members can be classified as leadership style. It refers to the behavior exhibited by a leader during supervision of employees. The style represents the leader predominant way of acting with his group. Actually, there are as many different styles as there are leaders. However, organizational researchers have listed following three basis styles:
1. Autocratic Style
The autocratic leader assumes responsibility for deciding on the group’s project by assigning tasks to members and permitting no participation in decision making process. He centralizes authority and decision making in him and exercise complete and full-fledged control over his subordinates. He sets group goals and structures the work. He gives orders and the subordinated are expected to obey them. The manager expresses decision by the use of rewards and the fear of punishment. Communication tends to be one way i.e. downward. The subordinates are made aware of what to do but not why. Tasks are assigned facilities provided and direction given without consultation with the individual carrying out the work.

An average of autocratic leadership is that the decisions are very speedy. It is most suited at the time of crisis or when the subordinates are inefficient.

2. Democratic Style
Democratic style is widely known participative or employee oriented leadership styles. The essence of this style is the consultation, the leader consults the subordinates. Before arriving at decisions, participative leadership styles take into consideration the wishes and suggestions of the subordinates as well as the leader. All members of the group are seen as important contribution to the final decision. The communication is two ways i.e. upward as well as downward.

The advantages of this type of leadership style include;
  • Increased member’s moral and support for the final decision and better decisions through shared information. 
  • Ideas among group members participating in decision-making can lead to improve manager/ worker relations. 
  • High satisfaction and decreased dependence on the leader.
  • Multi-directional communication permits fruitful exchange of ideas and information between the leader and led and helps in encouraging member commitment to the decision.
3. Free rein style or laissez faire Style
It goes a step further of democratic style and turn an entire problem or project over subordinates, subordinates may be asked to set their own goals and to develop plans for achieving them. Thus, in this type of leadership style, a manager avoids power and relinquishes leadership position. The leader is a silent spectator. In essence, this approach is characterized by the absence of any active leadership by the leader. It is the abdication of responsibility. The leader merely functions as a group member, providing only as much advice and direction as requested. There is very little control or influence over group members of the leader.

Qualities of a Successful Leader

The qualities of a successful leader are:
  1. Intelligence: A successful leader must have above average knowledge and intelligence. Mental ability to think precisely, analyze accurately, interpret clearly and consciously are necessary to consider the problems in the right perspective.
  2. Maturity: A leader should possess a high level of emotions stability and cool temperament. He needs a high degree of tolerance.
  3. Sound Physique: Sound physical and mental health is essential to bear the burden of leadership. Sound physique includes physical stamina, nervous, energy, mental vigour and important leadership qualities.
  4. Self Confidence: The leader should have confidence in himself and a strong will power.
  5. Empathy: The leader must have the ability to see things from other’s point of view. He must respect the viewpoints and feelings of others.
  6. Foresight and Vision: He should have the capability to look forward and anticipate the events. He should have a high degree of imagination, moral courage, breadth and determination.
  7. Decisiveness: A leader must have sound judgement and the ability to take quick decisions.
  8. Human Relations Approach: A leader must have the capacity to understand people, work with them and to gain their confidence, loyalty and voluntary cooperation. He must be able to motivate people towards higher performance.
  9. Objectivity: A leader should be fair and objective in dealing with subordinates. He must be free from bias and prejudice.

A leader influence the behavior of followers towards goal achievement

We defines simply leadership as the art of process of influencing people as that they will strive willingly and enthusiastically towards the achievement of group goals. The person who guides or influences the behavior of others is called leader and people guided or influenced are called the followers. Leadership can be used the process of influencing the people to regulate their behavior. For this purpose, the organization firstly, select the best leader as appropriate to the employee. Then the leadership appreciation involves the use of verbal and non-verbal influence. Fourthly, the use of certain leadership is evaluated. Finally, leadership at the very moment has become complex practice due to employee education and awareness. Also the revolution in trade unions has made the official leadership quite complex and challenging.

Path Goal Theory of Leadership
Path Goals leadership theory draws heavily on expectancy motivation theory and high concern for both people and work. The theory has been proposed by Robert House and has been expanded and refined by him and other over the last decade. The theory can be summarized as follows:

a) The leader can improve subordinate motivation by making the rewards for performance more attractive. By giving the people raises, promotions and recognition, the leader can increase the subordinates valence i.e. preference for goal achievement.

b) If the worker’s assignments are poorly defined the leader can increase motivation by providing structure in the form of helpful supervision, subordinate training and goal clarification. Reducing the ambiguity of the job makes it easier for the subordinate to pursue the goals. Expectancy i.e. likelihood of attaining the first level outcome should increase.


If we take these two steps together, we can see that in the first valence is increased and in the second expectancy is increased. Now, as per the expectancy theory of motivation, since

Motivational Force = Valence x Expectancy
It is obvious that path goal theory is designed to increase worker motivation.

c) If the work of the subordinates is already greatly structured, as in the case of assembly line worker or mechanist, the leader should refrain from introducing any more structure such action will be viewed as unnecessary and overly directive. Instead of worrying about the work, the leader show now speed more time being concerned with the personal needs of the people by giving them attention, praise and support.

Path Goal Theory provides three important benefits: - It helps integrate expectancy theory and contingency leadership.
- It reemphasizes the importance of high leader concern for both the work and the people.
- It encourages the leader to analyze the situation in determining the right degree of each concern for structure and concern for people that will be required.

Fiedler's Contingency Theory of Leadership

Fred E. Fiedler developed a contingency model of leadership. According to the contingency theories of leadership, the success of leadership depends upon the situation in which the leader operates. According to him, a leader's effectiveness depends upon the following three situational factors.
  1. Leader followers relations, that is the degree of followers trust, confidence and respect for the leader. 
  2. Task structure, power, that is the nature of task performed by the subordinates.
  3. The status power that is the degree associated with the position or status held by the leader in the organizations.
The most favorable situation for leaders to influence their group is one in which they are well liked by the members, the task performed is highly structured and the leader has enough power attached to his/her position in the organization. On the other hand, the most unfavorable situation for leaders is one in which they are disliked, the task is highly unstructured and little power is attached to the leader's position.
Findings of the Fiedler Model 
According to the questions, laissez-faire or free rein leadership style of leadership apply to Fielder’s Contingency Theory. Under this style, leaders avoid power and responsibility. They grant authority and responsibility to groups. The role of the leader is to provide advice and direction as requested by the subordinates. Group members perform everything themselves. Leader behaves primarily as a group and plays the role of a member only. The concept of management by exception promotes this type of style, where subordinates themselves plan, control, evaluate and decide and the manager interferes exceptionally. This style is suitable for highly trained and professional staff.

Quality Circle (QC)

Quality Circle (QC)
The concept of quality circle (QC) originally emerged from Japan. Quality circle is a work group of employees who meet regularly to discuss their quality problems, investigate causes, recommend solutions, and take corrective measure. QC is a small group of employees who work voluntarily on company time, to address work related problems such as quality control, cost reduction, production planning and techniques, and even product design.
Quality circle is used to achieve the following objectives:
  • Improvement in quality of product manufactured by the organization. 
  • Improvement in methods of production and productivity.
  • Development of employees participating in QC.
  • Promoting morale of employees.
  • Respect humanity and create a happy workplace worthwhile to work.
Problem in Implementations and Their Solution
Though QC concepts have many positive points, it has failed miserably in many organizations due to certain problems and pitfalls. Following are some major problems of QC implementation and their suggested remedies.
  1. Negative Attitudes: Both employees and managers having negative attitudes towards QC often resist its implementation. Managers feel that QC dilutes their authority and importance in the organization. This negative attitude can be dispelled by imparting appropriate training to employees as well as managers about the real concept and contribution of QC. 
  2. Lack of Ability: The workers are characterized by their low level of education and lack of leadership abilities. This problem can be overcome by initiating workers education programme.
  3. Lack of Management Commitment: Lack of management commitment towards QC is demonstrated by not permitting the members to hold QC meeting during the working hours. Therefore, the top management should permit workers to hold QC meetings periodically during the working hours and should also extend all required and timely assistance for the smooth functioning of QC.
  4. Non-Implementation of Suggestions: The members of the QC feel disheartened in case of their suggestions are not accepted and implemented without convincing reasons. Instead, the suggestions rendered by QC should be given due consideration and weightage and should be implemented. This will enthuse the members of the QC to improve quality of their goods and services. QC benefits both organization and workers.

Groups Decision Making

Decision making is the process whereby a final but best choice is made among the alternative available. Group decision making is collective decision making by group members. Group offer an excellent vehicle for performing many of the stages in the decision making process. They work for information gathering. If the group is composed of individual with diverse background, the alternatives generated should be more critical. When the final support is agreed upon there are more people in a group decision to support and implement it.


Advantages of Group Decision Making:
The group decision making offer the following advantages:
  • Compared to an individual, the groups usually have a greater knowledge, expertise, and skill base to make better decisions.
  • Larger number of members provides more perspective of the problem. As such, the narrow vision of a single perspective is avoided in making decisions.
  • With large numbers of group members, the participation also increases that helps to reach at a quality decision.
  • Following increased group participation, comprehensive of final decision arrived at is usually high.
Disadvantages of Group Decision Making:
All is not good with group decision making. It suffers from the following disadvantages:
  • Group decision making is a time consuming process.
  • Influence groups usually manipulate the group decision in a direction of their linking and interest.
  • Sometimes decisions made by the group members are simply a compromise between the various views and options offered by the group members.

Group Processes

Group behavior is affected by the processes that go within a work group. The process comprises the communication pattern used by members for information exchange, group decision process, conflict, interaction etc. The group process is very much important to understand and group behavior. By understanding group behaviors the behaviors can be controlled and with the help of desired behavior work can be accomplished. Group process include the following synergy:

An action of two or more substances that results in an effect that is different from the individual summation of the substances. For example, social loafing (i.e. the tendency for individuals to expend less effort when working collectively than when working individually) is a negative synergy.

Social Facilitation Effect
The tendency for performance to improve or decline in response to the presence of others, while this effect is not entirely a group's phenomenon- people can work in the presence of other and not be members of the groups. The group situation is more likely to provide the condition for social facilitation to occur.

Concept of Group Tasks
There is certain nature of task, which needs groups to perform it. Individual alone cannot perform it. Sometimes one group has to depend upon other group due to its nature. The impact of group processes on the group's performance and member satisfaction is also moderated by the tasks that the group is doing. The complexity and interdependence of task influence the group effective.

Group task can be simple or complex.

1. Simple Task:
  • Are routine wise or standardized 
  • Group's members do not need to discuss alternatives.
  • They can rely on standardized operation procedures for doing the job.
2. Complex Task:
  • Ones that tend to be novel or non-routine. 
  • The more complex the task, the more the group will benefit from discussion among members on alternative work method.
  • There is high degree of interdependence among the tasks that the group member must perform.

Group Structure

Every group has structure, which shape the behavior of members and makes explain and predict the large portion of individual behavior within the group and performance of the group.

A group structure includes following variables.
1. Formal Leadership: Almost every groups has a formal leader e.g. manager, supervisor/ foreman.

2. Roles: Roles deal with what people do. As set of expected behavior pattern attributed to someone occupying a given position in asocial unit. People have the ability to shift roles rapidly when they recognize that the situation and its demand clearly require major changes.
    • Role Identity: These are certain attitudes and actual behavior consistent with a role and they create role identity.
    • Role Perception: An individual's view of how he is supposed to act in a given situations.
    • Role Expectations: How others believe a person should act in a given situation.
3. Norms: The norms are accepted standard of behavior shared by group members. It tells, what should or should not do by group members. Every group has established their norms. But norms differ from group to group. Norms influence the behavior of group members. They are 'ought' of behavior.

4. Authority: Group is formed to achieve a particular objective. In a group, that is a leader and follower. Leader is an entitled to decision, while the follower has to follow the decision. Thus the power to make decision into action is known as authority.

Group

Group is a collection of two or more individuals, interacting and interdependent who have come together to achieve particulars common objectives. A group is, thus, an aggregation of people who interact with each other, are aware of one another, have a common objective, and perceive themselves to be a group. Now, a group may be defined as a collection of people who have a common purpose or objectives,
interact with each other to accomplish the group objectives are aware of one another and perceive themselves to be part of group.

More collection people cannot constitute a group. For example, a crowd in front of a shop in the market watching India vs. Australia one-day cricket match on stadium will not be called as group because people do not interact with one another, do not known one another and also do not share a common purpose.

Now, based on above definitions, the following characteristics of group can be listed:
  • Two or more people
  • Collective identity
  • Interaction and interdependence
  • Common purpose
Reason of people forming and joining group
People form and become members of group for a variety of different reasons. They are as follows:
  1. Safety and security needs: Groups provide protection to their members from outside pressures. That is why workers join trade unions to feel safe and secure. This holds true at all walks of life. Even in the nursery class. When the teacher asks the small kids who broke the toy, he seldom gets an answer. What happens is all kids keep mum or quiet. Although young, they protected their member by not disclosing any kid's name of pointing out nay one in group.
  2. Relatedness or Belongingness needs: People being social belong belonging to or relating to groups satisfies a numbers of their social needs. In every organization, there are many persons who are very isolated or who prefer to be absent from work most of the times. Studies shows, such phenomena occur more where people are unable to belong to groups.
  3. Esteem needs: When one's member of a group and does some good piece of work, gets a praise from other. This is turn, bring a sense of recognition to the group member, on the one hand, and also a sense of fulfillment of one's need for growth towards higher achievement of work and better career prospects, on the other side.
  4. Power: One of the appealing aspects of groups is that they represent power and also offer power to their members. Workers enjoy much greater power by joining groups than they do as individuals. This is because of at least two reasons: (i) There is strength in numbers, and (ii) United we stand, divide we fall.
  5. Identity: As a member of a group, an individual gets identity who am I? Practices, we understand ourselves through the behavior of other towards us. For example, when others- praise us, we feel we are great, if other laugh at us, we see ourselves as funny ones.

Role of Informal Groups in Organizations

Group may be defined as a social phenomenon in which two or more persons decide to interact with one another, share common ideology and perceive themselves as a group. Both formal and informal groups exist in organizations. Formal groups are collection of employees who are made to work together by the organization to get the job done smoothly and efficiently. Informal groups, on the other hand are groups that emerge or randomly get formed due to the formal group member's interactions with each other, and there by develop common interacts. In the other words, informal groups are not formally organized in the work system to get the job done, but randomly develop on their own at the work place because of common interests and mutual linking among the members of the formal group. Informal groups in modern organization are important as they play vital roles. Some of the roles played by informal groups can be as following:
  • Informal group are controlled by their norms and values, so the behavior of employees could be positive.
  • Informal groups sometime lead to innovation and creativity regarding to job complexity and difficulties or for new product and services.
  • Informal groups are controlled by their norms and values, so the behavior of employees could be positive.
  • Informal groups help in communicating new changes easily and effectively.
  • Informal group by their social interaction can create the better image of company.
  • Informal group creates the warm relationship between superior and subordinates. Plus, it helps in establishing cultural interaction for the issues created in organization.
  • Informal group can solve the formal problems of organization even in off-the-job time.
  • Informal groups inform, suggest and help the organization determining employee's salary, motivation and job satisfaction.
  • Informal groups lead special effort on job result and help in adoption of organizational change.

Self-managed Work Team

Self-managed work team is the group of employee who take on the responsibilities of the supervisor. The group performs all things by themselves. They make planning and scheduling of the work. Typically, self-managed teams are group of 10-15 employees who perform related or interdependent jobs. They select their own members and evaluate each other's performance. It increases productivity and satisfaction. However, the effectiveness of self-managed teams is situationally dependent. They have reduced the importance of supervisor position. Due to this reason, many companies in US, Europe, Japan are putting to their effort to developed self-managed team in their organizations. These teams are oneself-managed. No need to manage them from the upper level.

Merit: Members report high job satisfaction
Demerit: Higher absenteeism and turnover rates, don't seem to work well while downsizing.

Major Issues in Managing Work Teams
1. How does team facilitate the adoption of TQM (Total Quality Management)?
The TQM requires encouragement to employee by management to share ideas and implement improvements. Team provides the vehicle for employees to share ideas and to implement improvement. The issue is how to make the work teams effective for quality problem solving, especially in terms of size, ability, resources, mobilization etc.

2. What is the importance of workforce diversity on team performance?
The strongest case for diversity on work teams is when these teams are engaged in problem-solving and decision-making tasks. Diverse groups have more difficulty in working together and solving problem but this dissipate with time.

3. Increasing team effectiveness
An important issue is how to increase and maintain team effectiveness. For this, the following things should be taken into considerations. 
  • Prepare member to deal with the problem of maturity- remind them that they are not unique.
  • Offer refresher training
  • Offer advanced training
  • Encourage team to treat their development as a constant learning experience.

Introduction of Quality Circle in an organization

Introduction of Quality Circle in an organization
Like any organizational change, QC being a new concept is most likely be opposed by the employees. Therefore, QC should be introduced with great concern and precaution as discussed below:
  1. Publicizing the Idea of QC: Implementation of QC is just like an organizational change programme. Hence, like an organizational change programme, the workers need to be convinced about the need for and significance of QC from the point of view of the organization and the workers. Participation in QC being voluntary, its publicity among the workers is necessary. To begin with, management can also arrange for initial training to some workers who want to form quality circles. 
  2. Constitution of Quality Circles: Workers doing similar type of work are drawn voluntarily to constitute quality circles. The membership of a QC should be limited to ten to twelve members.
  3. Initial Problem Solving: The members of the QC should discuss the problem a threadbare and prepare a list of alternative solutions. Each alternative solution should be evaluated and final solution should be arrived at on the basis of consensus.
  4. Presentation and Approval of Suggestions: The final solution arrived at should be presented to the management either in oral or in written form. The management may evaluate the solution by forming a committee for this purpose. The committee may also meet the members of the quality circle for clarifications. Presentation of solutions to the management helps improve the communication between management and workers and reflects management's interest to the members of QC.
  5. Implementation: Once the suggestion/ solution is approved by the management, the same is being put into practice in a particular workplace. Quality circles may be organized gradually for other workplaces or departments also. Thus, following this process, the entire organization can have quality circles.

Group Dynamics

The social process by which people interact face to face in small group is called group dynamics. The word 'dynamics' comes from the Greek word meaning 'force', hence group dynamics refers to the study of forces operating within a group. Two important historical landmarks in our understanding of small groups are the research of Elton mayo and his associates in the 1920s and 1930s and the experiments in the 1930s of Kurt Lewin, the founder of the group dynamics movement. Mayo showed that workers tend to establish informal groups that affect job satisfaction and effectiveness. Lewin showed that different kinds of leadership produced different responses in groups.

Groups have properties of their own that are different from the properties of the individuals who make up the group. The special properties of groups are illustrated by a simple lesson in mathematics. Suppose we say 'one plus one equals three' 1+1=3. In the world of mathematics that is a logical error. But in the world of group dynamics it is entirely rational to say 'one plus one equals three'. In a group, there is no such thing as only two people, for no two people can be considered without including their relationship, and that relationship is the third element in the equation.

Developed and Enforced of Group Norms
Group norm is standard of behavior. In other words, groups norm is a rule that tells the individual how to behave in a particular group. Thus, group norms identify the standards against which the behaviors of group members know what they should or should not do. Norms could be formal or could be informal.

According to Schein, there are pivotal and relevant group norms while the pivotal norms are confirmed by every member of the group, the relevant norms are desirable to be confirmed by the members. With increase in the size of the group, the acceptability of norms tends to lessen. Small deviation of norms is allowable. However in case of extreme deviation, the deviator gets punished. For example, when the union is on strike, if its member attending to work are punished by being boycotted by the group. Hence, norms serve as the basis for behavior of group members. They predict and control the behavior of member in groups.

Stages of Group Development

Different researches have reported different stages of group development. For example, Bernard M. Bass and Edward C. Ryterband report that groups typically develop through a four stage process:
  • Mutual acceptance 
  • Communication and decision making
  • Motivation and productivity
  • Control and organization
However, the most widely accepted five stages of group development are ones as reported by B.W. Tauchman and M.A. Jensen. These are:
Stages of Group Development
  1.  Forming Stages: The first stage for almost every group is an orientation stage. This stage is marked by a great deal of caution, confusion, courtesy and uncertainty about the group's purpose, structure, and leadership. The formal leader exerts a great influence in structuring the group and shaping member expectations. This stage is complete when members of the group have begun to think of themselves as part of a group. 
  2.  Storming Stage: This stage is characteristics by conflict, confrontation, concern and criticism. Struggles for individual power and influences are common. In case, the conflict becomes extremely intense and dysfunctional; the group may dissolve or continue as an ineffective group that advances to higher levels of group maturity.
  3. Norming Stage: This is the stage in which close relationship among the members develops. The group evinces cohesiveness. The group now assumes to certain identify and camaraderie.
  4. Performing Stage: This is the highest level of group maturity. This stage is marked teamwork, role clarity, and task accomplishment. Conflict is identified and resolved through group discussion. The members of the group are aware of group's processes and the extent of their own involvement in the group.
  5. Adjourning Stage: This stage is recognized as end of group i.e. completing every task and the group will be automatically adjourned. Groups are adjourned for two reasons. First the group has completed its task. Second, the members decide to disband and close the group with sentimental feeling.

Reasons of Awareness of Information Groups

Manager should be aware of informal groups in regards to both positive and negative aspects. The rational manager should always focus on negative side than positive because negative aspects of informal groups are more danger and create problems to entire organization. The following points clear negative aspects of informal groups.
  • Informal group can have unfair views to the management.
  • Unnecessary politics may arise in organization.
  • Informal groups may end at any time.
  • Informal group may not have best leadership to energizes and synergize the work efficiency.
  • Informal groups can create the ethical confusion in organization as views are interacted to produce contrast views.
  • Informal group sometimes is translated in organizational activities.
Element of Group Cohesiveness

Group cohesion means the degree to which the group members are attracted to each other and remain within the group. It is usually reflected by its resiliency to disruption by outside forces. Group cohesion develops out of the activities, interactions, and sentiments of the members.

The element or factors affecting group cohesion are as follows:
  1. Group Size: One of the important and necessary conditions for the existence of the group is that members interact and communicative with each other. If the group is so large that members do not get to know each others, there is little likelihood that the group will be high in cohesiveness. This is a logical assumption that would be made by those who understand the difficulties of communicating in large groups. Research studies have found that inverse relationship does not exist between the size of the group and the group cohesive. As the size of a group increases, its cohesiveness decreases. 
  2. Member Similarity: The degree of cohesiveness will be high when group members are similar in age, backgrounds and values. In other words, homogeneous groups will be more cohesive than heterogeneous group. It is because of more trust and less conflict among the group members with homogeneous character.
  3. Member Interaction: When member interact frequently, there tends to be more group of cohesive because they got chance to share ideas and views in order to avoid the situation of misunderstanding and conflict.
  4. Groups Success: a successful group tends to be more cohesive than a group of repetitive failure records. Group members of the succession group believe that, because of their successive records in the past, they will remain successful in the future too.

Nature and Significance of Informal Groups in Organization

Informal groups are neither formally structure nor organizationally determined. It is based on personal interaction, sentiments and social activities. The membership is voluntary participate. Its primary focus is person. It has members with common objective or similar need for social affiliation and friendship. It quickly adapts to environmental changes but resists to change within the group.

Not only is the formal group important in effective performance of the job. But equally important of informal group in organization because of the following reasons:
  1. Compensation for the low capacity manager's ability: Manager may not be capable in all the fields. In same, he may snag the ability. Especially, in planning and other decision making his snags i.e. low capacity can be compensated by his subordinates informally, if he has the good relationship with the informal group. 
  2. Useful channel of communication: Communication through informal group is faster than formal. Any information through the channel of informal groups spreads quickly. Thus the informal group proves to be very useful channel for effective communication.
  3. Compel managers to plan and act cautiously: Informal groups induce the manager to plan and act cautiously because of weak plan and action is always undermined by the groups.
  4. Provides sense of belongingness and security: Informal group provides satisfaction and stability of work team to attain a sense of belongingness and security. A new employee will remain an isolate until the group accepts him as a member. When the new comer will be accepted as a group member he attains a sense of belongingness and security.
  5. Greater performance and supervision: Informal groups help get the jobs done or control performance. If the manager feels that his work team is cooperating him, he has less need for checking frequently and confidently delegate and decentralize the work. The informal group support leads in general supervision instead of close supervision, which enhances the productivity of the employees later on.
  6. Reduced frustration and allied employee: Informal groups are the safety value for the frustration and allied employee because if any employee feels irrigation with his superior's behavior, he can talk it to his group members and can dissipate his unpleasant feelings.

Mc George Theory X and Y

Mc George Theory X and Y is the outcomes of the Mayo and his associates work. They have developed the popular classification scheme of acceptable and unacceptable managerial styles in management literature. Mc George termed it as the theory of X and theory of Y. He believes that the manager tries to motivate employees by one of the two basic approaches.

Assumptions of Theory X
  • The average people inherently dislike work and will avoid if it is possible. 
  • Due to dislike of work, most people must be forced to control, direct and threat with punishment to get them to perform work effectively.
  • The average human beings lacks ambition, avoids responsibility and seeks security and economic rewards above all else.
  • Most of the people are rigid to change and also lack creativeness.
  • They are self centered, so they are not concerned with the goals of the organization.
Thus, the central principle of theory X is that an organization is controlled and directed through the exercise of authority. Mc George firmly believed that attempts to control employees forced them towards organizational goals based on the assumptions of theory and may fail to motivate individuals to work towards organizations goals.

For the people X, the manager has to exercise centralized control and supervision and emphasize on autocratic type of leadership style and downward communication.

Assumptions of Theory Y
  • According to this, a physical and mental effort in work is as natural as play or rest. 
  • People will exercise self direction and self control in the service of objectives to which they are committed.
  • Commitment to objective is the function of the rewards associated with achievement.
  • The average person learns under proper conditions, not only to accept but to seek responsibility.
  • The capacity to exercise a relatively high degree of imagination, ingenuity and creativity in the solution of organizational problems is widely not narrowly, distributed in the population.
  • Under the conditions of modern industrial life, the intellectual potentialities of the average person are only partly utilized.
The theory Y emphasized the creating of opportunities, removing obstacles, encouraging growth and providing guidance. Mc George believed that for motivating the persons Y decentralized organization, democratic leadership and two way communications will help to create the congenial environment to work.

Means for Effective Motivation

Motivation is a very complex phenomenon. In order to motivate people towards organizational goals and effective actions, management has to create a congenial physical, social and psychological atmosphere. Human behavior is influenced by a host of complex factors. Understanding these factors and adjusting them to suit the organizational need is essential for effective motivation.
The management can employ the following means for effective employee motivation:
  1. Fair Remuneration: Most of the basic and many of the secondary human needs can be satisfied by fairly remunerating the employees. Nature of job, cost, cost of living, pay scales of other organizations, the wage structures and scales should properly be evaluated and determined.
  2. Job Satisfaction: Management should place employees properly according to their merits, aptitudes, interests and capacities. The well placed employees take pride, interest and initiative in their work and derive job satisfaction. Job satisfaction leads to realization of goals.
  3. Job Security: Job security is a great motivating factor. Security is a great psychological need of a man and hence must be satisfied for turning up the morale.
  4. Fair Promotions: Everybody aspires for growth and development in his life. Organizational promotions satisfy various physiological, social and psychological needs of the people. Management should therefore, create arrange for promotional training and education to enable employees to get promotions.
  5. Congenial Working Environment: Working conditions for the employees must be made congenial. The adequate provision of light, air, safety, sanitation, cleanliness, noise prevention, smoke and fume clearance should be made for physical health and mental health and satisfaction. Congenial environment releases tension and tiredness and motivate them to work.
  6. Honest and Competent Leadership: If the leaders and managers are honest, impartial, sympathetic and capable of understanding employee hopes and aspirations, emotions and sentiments, prospects and problems, motives and attitudes, they would be able to win the control, maintain discipline and motivate their employees. They must treat employees with love and affection, but at the same time they must be able to maintain such distance that the discipline and respect are not at the slake.
  7. Efficient System of Grievance Redressal: Employee grievance is a major factors detracting employee from work and forming an apathetic attitudes towards manage. If management introduces a perfect system of discovering the employee grievances, their causes and remedies and remove them honesty and regularly, it will win the confidence of the employees that the management is really interested in their well being and there is great desire in management to keep them happy and contented.
  8. Freedom of Association, Mobility, Expression etc.: The need of association is a great need of human being. It is therefore, the management should satisfy their need by providing freedom to individuals to form their cultural and social associations whether formal or informal.
  9. Efficient Organization, Coordination and Control: Efficient organization may include adequate and efficient physical facilities and organization of manpower. Proper delegation of authority and fixation of responsibilities avoid confusion and conflicts to bring unity in action and purpose. Similarly, efficient coordination of activities lead to harmonious relations and approach and the adequate system of control checks all splintering and cross purpose activities. To the great extent the feeling of security, certainty, fairness, confidence, interest and initiative is a result of efficient organization, coordination and control.
  10. Democratic Management Technique: If the employees are given participation in management decisions, they began to feel themselves as a part and parcel of organization. It satisfies their instinct of belonging to the organization, gives them psychological satisfaction and fosters the feeling of team and cooperation. A sense of responsibility and duty is generated.
  11. Other Incentives: Several other physical and psychological incentives may be offered by the management to tone up employee morale and motivate them towards stated objectives. The efficient training progress, the affectionate attitude of superiors towards their subordinates and such innumerable measures can motivate people.

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