Social Environment

Social Environment is refers to all the social surroundings that influence project. It consists of factors related to human relationships.

Projects operate within the society. They satisfy societal needs. Social factors influence the practices and activities of projects.

Important factors in the social environment consist of demographics, social institutions, pressure groups and social change.

Factors in Social Environment of Project


Factors in Social Environment of Project
i) Demographics: Demography is concerned with human population and its distribution. Demographic forces that affect labor availability in projects are:
  • Size, distribution and growth of population in project area. 
  • Age mix of population
  • Migration of population
  • Foreign employment policies.
ii) Social Institutions: They consist of reference groups and social class:
  • Reference Groups: They consist of groups that have a direct or indirect influence on the attitudes and behavior of ties or professionally successful people. 
  • Social Class: It is the rank within a society determined by its members. It can be classified into upper, middle and lower. Members of a class share similar values, interests and behavior. Project activities are influenced by classes in the society. Projects need to tailor their activities to meet the needs of specific social classes.
iii) Pressure Groups: They are special interest groups. They use the political process to advance their position on an issues of social concern. They pressurize and lobby government and projects to protect their interests through change in laws, policies and practices.

Pressure groups can be related to consumerism, environment protection, human rights, women rights, good governance etc.

iv) Social Change: Change is making things different. Social change implies modification in relationships and behavior patterns in a society. Life style and social values promote social change.

Life style is a person's pattern of living reflected in his activities, interests and opinions. It affects product choice.

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